Details

Equine Science


Equine Science


3. Aufl.

von: Zoe Davies

37,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 14.09.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781118741160
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 480

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Preface xxiii Acknowledgement xxv 1 The Biochemical Nature of Cells 1 Metabolism 1 Water 1 Important Properties ofWater 4 Proteins 4 Basic Structure of Amino Acids 4 Polypeptides 5 Levels of Protein Structure 5 Primary Structure of Proteins (Amino Acid Sequence) 6 Secondary Structure of Proteins (Alpha Helix or Beta Pleated Sheet) 6 Tertiary Structure of Proteins (3D Shape/Folding) 7 Quaternary Structure of Proteins (Aggregations of Polypeptide Chains) 7 Classification of Proteins 7 Structure of Collagen 8 Modification of Proteins 8 Denaturation of Proteins 8 Carbohydrates 8 Fructans 9 Starch 10 Cellulose 11 Glycogen 11 Lipids/Fats 11 Triglycerides 12 Essential Fatty Acids 12 Phospholipids 13 Cholesterol 15 Nucleic Acids 15 Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) 15 Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) 16 Messenger RNA (mRNA) 17 Transfer RNA (tRNA) 18 Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) 18 Protein Synthesis 18 Transcription 18 Translation 20 The Genetic Code 21 Reading the Genetic Code 23 Enzymes 23 Factors that Affect the Activity of Enzymes 25 Temperature 25 pH 25 Enzyme Concentration 25 Substrate Concentration 25 Cofactors and Coenzymes 25 Enzyme Inhibitors 25 Metabolic Poisons 26 Drugs 26 Summary Points 26 Q + A 27 2 Cells, Tissues and Organs 29 Cells – Building Blocks of Life 29 Prokaryotic Cells 29 Eukaryotic Cells 31 Cell Function 31 Cytoplasm 32 Cytosol 32 Movement of Substances in and around Cells 32 Cell Organelles 32 Cytoskeleton 32 Cell or Plasma Membrane 33 The Fluid Mosaic Model of Cell Membrane Structure 34 The Role of Membranes in Cell Organelles 34 Nucleus 37 Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosomes 38 Golgi Body (Dictyosome) 38 Mitochondria 38 Lysosomes 38 Peroxisomes (Microbodies) 39 Centrosomes 39 Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death) 39 Cell Turnover 40 Cell Division (Mitosis and Meiosis) 40 The Cell Cycle 40 Mitosis 41 Key Events 41 Cytokinesis or Cytoplasmic Division 43 Meiosis 44 Key Events 45 First Meiotic Division 46 Second Meiotic Division 46 Cell Signalling 46 Cell Differentiation and Stem Cells 46 Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells 47 Tissues and Organs 47 Epithelium/Epithelial Tissue 48 Epithelial Cell Shapes 50 Epithelial Arrangement of Cells 50 Connective Tissue 51 Connective Tissue Cells 52 Connective Tissue Fibres 52 Tissue Repair 53 The Four Stages ofWound Healing 54 Stage 1 – Traumatic Inflammatory Phase 54 Stage 2 – Destructive Phase (0–3 Days) 54 Stage 3 – Proliferative Phase (3–24 Days) 55 Stage 4 – Maturation Phase (24 Days to 2 Years) 56 Ageing Tissue 56 Stem Cell Therapy 56 Summary Points 57 Q + A 58 3 Equine Support and Movement 59 Points of the Horse 59 The Skeletal System 59 Bone 59 Classification of Bone Tissue 60 Dense or Compact Bone 60 Spongy or Cancellous Bone 61 Types of Bones 61 Microscopic Bone Structure 64 Bone Formation and Growth 64 Developmental Orthopaedic Disease 67 Bone Remodelling 68 Hormones and their Effect on Bone Growth 68 Effect of Exercise on Bone Tissue 69 Calcium Homeostasis 69 Bone Fracture and Repair 69 The Skeleton 70 The Axial Skeleton 70 The Skull 70 The Vertebral Column or Spine 71 The Appendicular Skeleton 75 Forelimb 76 Hindlimb 79 Stay Apparatus 80 The Mechanics of Movement 80 Joints 80 Types of Joints 81 Movement of Joints 83 Ageing of Joints 83 Muscles 83 CardiacMuscle 84 Smooth Muscle 84 Skeletal Muscle (Voluntary or Striated Muscle) 85 The Sliding FilamentModel 87 Muscle Anatomy 87 Muscles of the Neck and Shoulder 91 Brachiocephalic 91 Sternocephalic 91 Splenius 91 Trapezius 91 Rhomboideus 95 Deltoideus 95 Triceps 95 Muscles of the Trunk 95 Latissimus Dorsi 95 Pectorals 95 Muscles of the Forearm 95 Digital Extensor 95 Digital Flexor 95 Muscles of the Abdomen 97 Intercostal Muscles 97 Longissimus Dorsi 97 Muscles of the Hindlimb 97 Gluteal 97 Biceps Femoris 97 Semitendinosus 97 Digital Extensor 97 Gastrocnemius 99 The Importance of Muscle Fibres in Equine Performance 99 Muscle Fibre Types 99 Muscle Fibre Recruitment 100 Fatigue 101 Causes of Fatigue 101 Lactic Acid Accumulation 101 Summary Points 101 Q + A 101 4 TheLowerLimb 103 Tendons and Ligaments of the Lower Limb 103 Tendons 103 Tendon Repair 104 Extensor Tendons 106 Flexor Tendons 106 Ligaments and Suspensory Apparatus 106 Check Ligament 106 Suspensory Ligament 106 Blood Supply to the Lower Leg 107 The Hoof 107 The Hoof as a Plastic Structure 107 Effect of Movement on Hoof Structure 111 Functions of the Hoof 112 Shock Absorption 112 Grip 112 Circulation 113 The External Hoof 113 Wall 113 Sole 116 Frog 116 Hoof Horn 118 Internal Structures 118 Digital or Plantar Cushion 118 Lateral (Ungual) Cartilages 119 Pedal and Navicular Bones 119 The Balanced Foot 119 Assessment of Foot Balance 119 Static Foot Balance 119 Dynamic Foot Balance 120 Adaptations of Hoof Tissue 121 Summary Points 121 Q + A 122 5 The Digestive System 123 Foregut 124 Mouth 124 Oesophagus 127 Stomach 127 Gastric Juice 128 Small Intestine 130 Pancreas 132 Endocrine Functions of the Pancreas 132 Exocrine Functions of the Pancreas 133 Liver 134 Functions of the Liver 135 Hindgut 137 Large Intestine 137 Caecum 137 Large Colon 137 Small Colon 140 Rectum 140 Digestion in the Large Intestine 140 Equine Microbiota 140 The Gut and the Immune System 142 Summary Points 142 Q + A 143 6 The Respiratory System 145 Anatomy 146 Within the Head and Neck 146 Within the Chest 148 Blood Supply 149 Pleurae 149 Diaphragm 150 Physiology of Respiration 150 Pulmonary Ventilation 150 Pressure Changes during Breathing 151 Airway Resistance 151 Lung Air Volumes and Capacities 151 Dead Space 153 Regulation of Breathing 153 Respiratory–Locomotor Coupling 154 External Respiration or Pulmonary Gas Exchange 155 Internal Respiration or Systemic Gas Exchange 156 Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Around the Body 157 Oxygen Transport 157 Carbon Dioxide Transport 157 The Oxygen Dissociation Curve 158 The Bohr Effect 158 Cellular Respiration 159 Aerobic Cellular Respiration 159 Aerobic Respiration of Glucose 161 Glycolysis 161 Link Reaction 161 Krebs Cycle 163 Electron Transport Chain 163 Aerobic Respiration of Other Fuels 166 Glycogen 166 LipidMetabolism 166 Protein Metabolism 167 Anaerobic Respiration 167 Summary Points 167 Q + A 168 7 The Circulatory System 169 Foetal Circulation 170 The Heart 171 Cardiac Output 172 Anatomy of the Heart 173 The Cardiac Cycle 175 Regulation of the Heart Beat 175 The Heart and Fittening/Training Horses 176 The Heart and VO2 Max 178 Heart Murmurs 178 Heart or Cardiac Arrhythmia 178 Second-Degree AV Block 179 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) 179 Sudden Cardiac Death 179 Blood Vessels 179 Arteries 179 Veins 180 Capillaries 182 Heart Evaluation and Examination 182 Electrocardiogram 182 Exercise Testing of Horses 183 Blood 184 Plasma 184 Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes) 185 White Blood Cells (Leucocytes) 186 Granulocytes 188 Agranulocytes 189 Platelets (Thrombocytes) 190 Haemostasis or Blood Clotting 190 Blood Tests 191 Blood Typing 191 The Lymphatic or Lymph System 192 The Spleen 193 Summary Points 194 Q + A 194 8 The Nervous System 197 Nerves and Neurons 198 Neuroglia or Glial Cells 200 Organisation of the Nervous System 202 CNS 202 PNS 203 Action Potential 203 Resting Membrane Potential 204 Synapses 206 Transmission at the Synapse 207 Neurotransmitters 208 Endorphins and Enkephalins 208 Neuromuscular Junctions 209 The Brain 209 Forebrain 210 Hypothalamus 210 Thalamus 210 Cerebrum 210 Midbrain 210 Hindbrain 210 Spinal Cord 212 Reflex Actions or Arcs 212 Summary Points 212 Q + A 213 9 The Endocrine System 215 Hypothalamus 216 Pituitary Gland (Hypophysis) 217 Anterior Pituitary – Adenophysis 217 Pars Intermedia 218 Posterior Pituitary (Neurophysis) 218 Thyroid Gland 219 Thyroid Hormones 219 Parathyroid Glands 219 Adrenal Glands 220 Adrenal Cortex 221 Mineralocorticoids 221 Glucocorticoids 222 Adrenal Medulla 222 Pancreas 222 Secretion of Glucagon and Insulin 224 Thymus 225 Ovaries 225 Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin 226 Testes 226 Pineal Gland 227 The Neuroendocrine System 228 Circadian Rhythms in Horses 230 Sleep Patterns in Horses 231 Summary Points 232 Q + A 233 10 The Skin 235 Structure of the Skin 235 Epidermis 237 Stratum Basale 238 Stratum Spinosum 238 Stratum Granulosum 238 Stratum Lucidum 238 Stratum Corneum 238 Dermis 238 Sensation 239 Melanin 239 Sudoriferous Glands (Sweat Glands) 239 Sebaceous Glands 239 Hair 239 Hair Follicles 240 The Coat 241 Thermoregulation 241 Heat Conservation 243 Heat Loss 243 Sweating 245 Breaking Out 246 Dry Coat or Anhydrosis 246 Skin and Coat Colour 246 Summary Points 247 Q + A 247 11 The Senses 249 Transduction 249 Adaptation 249 Somatic Receptors 250 Thermal Sensations 250 Pain Sensations 251 Tactile Sensations 251 Itch Sensation 252 Proprioceptor Sensation 252 Special Senses 253 Sight 253 Visual Streak of the Eye 253 Colour Vision 254 Night Vision 254 Anatomy of the Eye 254 Chambers of the Eye 255 Photoreceptors 256 Transmission of Nerve Impulses to the Brain 258 Accommodation (Focusing) 258 Adaptation of the Horse’s Eyes to Light 258 Eyelids 259 Conjunctiva 259 Lacrimal Apparatus 260 Hearing and Balance 260 Anatomy of the Ear 261 Taste and Smell 264 The Olfactory System 265 Jacobson’s Organ 265 Summary Points 266 Q + A 266 12 Reproduction 267 Reproductive Anatomy of the Mare 267 Vulva 267 Vagina 269 Cervix 269 Uterus 269 Utero-tubular Junction 270 Fallopian Tubes 270 Ovaries 271 The Oestrus Cycle 272 Follicular Development or Oogenesis 275 Ovarian Changes during the Oestrus Cycle 275 Behavioural Signs of Oestrus in the Mare 276 Summary of Mare Behaviour through the Cycle 276 Endocrine Changes during the Oestrus Cycle 277 Artificial Control of the Oestrus Cycle 278 Light 279 Hormonal Methods 280 Postponing Ovulation 280 Reproductive Anatomy of the Stallion 280 Scrotum 280 Testes (Testicles) 281 Epididymis 282 Vas Deferens 284 Accessory Sex Glands 284 Vesicular Gland (Seminal Vesicles) 284 Prostate Gland 284 Bulbo-Urethral Gland (Cowper’s Gland) 284 Penis 284 Spermatogenesis 285 Acrosome Reaction 286 Endocrine Pathways in the Male 287 Fertilisation 287 Pregnancy Diagnosis 287 Foetal Sexing 288 Twins 289 Endocrine Maintenance of Gestation 289 Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin 290 Progesterone 290 Oestrogens 290 Relaxin 290 Gestation 291 Implantation and Placentation 291 Embryology 292 Phases of Equine Embryo Development and Migration 293 Phase 1 294 Phase 2 294 Phase 3 294 Phase 4 294 Phase 5 294 Phase 6 294 Timeline of Embryonic Development 294 The Foetal Endocrine System 295 Preparation for Parturition (Birth) 295 The Three Stages of Parturition 296 Stage 1 296 Stage 2 296 Stage 3 296 Induction 296 Lactation 297 Lactogenesis 297 Lactation Curve 298 Applied Reproductive Technologies 298 Artificial Insemination 298 Advantages 299 Disadvantages 299 Collection of Semen 299 Semen Preservation 300 Embryo Transfer 301 Advantages 302 Disadvantages 302 Donor and Recipient Mares 302 The Synchronisation Process 302 Collection of the Embryo 302 Transfer of the Embryo 303 Gamete Intrafallopian Transfer 303 Oocyte Transfer 303 Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) 303 Summary Points 303 Q + A 304 13 Genetics 305 The Genetic Code or Genome 305 Chromosomes 305 Gene Expression 306 Mitochondrial DNA 307 The Y Chromosome 308 Alleles 308 Dominance 308 Sex Cells 309 Hybrids 309 Heredity 309 Sex Determination 310 Genotype and Phenotype 311 Polygenic or Multiple Gene Traits 311 Multiple Alleles 311 Sex Linkage 311 Lethal Genes 311 Lethal White Foal Syndrome (LWFS) 311 Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS) 311 Lavender Foal Syndrome (LFS) 312 Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) 312 Congenital Curly Coat Syndrome 312 Epigenetics 312 Muscle Disorders 314 Nuclear Transfer (Cloning) 314 Parental Similarity of Clones 314 Mutation 315 Gene Mutation 315 Chromosome Mutation 316 Non-Disjunction 316 Polyploidy 316 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms 317 The Myostatin Gene and Performance 317 Coat Colour and Genetics 317 Bay/Black 318 White (Albino) (WWorWw) 318 Grey (GG or Gg) 318 Roan 320 Spotting Patterns 320 Sabino (SB1) 320 Tobiano (TO or to) 320 Overo (O) 320 Appaloosa (LP) 320 Cream (C or Ccr) 321 Silver (Z) 323 Champagne 323 Pearl 323 Dun (D or d) 323 White Markings 323 Melanomas in Grey Horses 323 Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Haemorrhage (EIPH) or Epistaxis 323 Summary Points 324 Q + A 324 14 The Urinary System 325 Kidneys 325 Nephrons 327 Role of Tubules in Formation of Urine and in Homeostasis 331 Proximal Convoluted Tubule 331 Loop of Henle 332 Distal Convoluted Tubule 333 Regulation ofWater 334 Regulation of Permeability of the Collecting Ducts by ADH 334 Aldosterone 335 Acid–Base Balance 335 Extracellular and Intracellular Chemical Buffers 336 Protein Buffer System 336 Carbonic Acid–Bicarbonate Buffer System 336 Phosphate Buffer System 336 Carbon Dioxide Exhalation 337 Excretion of Hydrogen Ions 337 Acid–Base Imbalances 337 Micturition or Urination 337 Summary Points 338 Q + A 338 15 The Immune System 339 Health Versus Disease 339 Microbes 339 Disease Transmission Routes 340 Infection 340 Biofilms 341 Symptoms of Disease 341 Diagnosis 342 Pathogenic Organisms 342 Bacteria (Prokaryotes) 342 Invasive Properties 343 Spread of Bacteria 344 Mycoplasma Species 345 Antibiotics and Resistance 345 Viruses 346 Structure 347 Replication 348 Eukaryotic Pathogens 348 Fungi 348 Protozoa 350 Internal Parasites 351 Protection from Disease 351 External Barriers 351 Innate Immunity 353 Inflammation 353 Interferons 355 Complement System 356 Natural Killer Cells 356 Adaptive/Acquired Immunity 357 Types of Adaptive/Acquired Immunity 357 Antigens and Antibodies 361 Antigen Presentation 362 Ingestion of an Antigen – Mode of Action 362 T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity 363 Helper T Cell Activation 363 Cytotoxic T Cells 363 Summary Points 364 Q + A 364 16 Exercise Physiology, Functional Anatomy and Conformation 365 Exercise Physiology 365 Fitness 365 Horses at Rest 365 Exercise 365 Exercise and Energy 366 Fuels Available for Exercise 367 Immediate Response of the Horse’s Body to Exercise 368 Changes Occurring during Exercise 368 Homeostatic Mechanisms Involved during Exercise 369 LactateThreshold 370 Over-training 370 Recovery 370 Long-Term Responses of the Horse’s Body to Exercise 371 Fitness Training 373 PreliminaryWork 373 DevelopmentWork 374 FastWork 374 Interval Training 374 Aims of Interval Training 374 Monitoring Interval Training 375 Beginning Interval Training 375 How to Use Interval Training 375 Points Regarding Interval Training 375 Functional Anatomy 376 Centre of Gravity 376 Stay Apparatus 377 Moving the Front Legs 380 Moving the Hind Legs 380 Equine Biomechanics 381 Kinematics 381 Kinetics 381 Conformation 382 Ideal Conformation 382 Head 382 Topline 382 Neck 382 Withers 384 Chest 384 Shoulder 384 Elbow 384 Forelimb 385 Feet 386 Back 386 Hindquarters 387 Summary Points 390 Q + A 390 17 Teeth and Ageing 391 Equine Teeth 391 Wear and Tear 394 Ageing 396 Care of Equine Teeth 399 Summary Points 401 Q + A 401 18 Evolution, Classification and Behaviour of the Horse 403 Evolutionary Time Period 403 Classification 403 Species 404 Evolutionary Development 407 The Evolutionary Family Tree 409 Domestic Breeds and Types of Horses 412 Donkeys 412 Przewalski’s Horse 412 Mustangs 414 Behaviour of the Modern Horse 414 Innate Behaviour 414 Learned Behaviour 415 Habituation 415 Classical Conditioning 416 Operant Conditioning 416 Latent Learning 416 Insight Learning 416 Stereotypies 416 Imprinting 417 The Dopamine Receptor D4 417 Emotion 417 Summary Points 417 Q + A 418 A Anatomical Terms Based on theMedian Plane 419 B Haematology and Plasma Biochemistry Tests 421 C Functions, Sources and Deficiencies of Vitamins andMinerals in Horses 423 Index 429
Zoe Davies is one of only a handful of qualified and Registered Equine Nutritionists in the UK. A former lecturer and external examiner in Equine Science, Zoe is a referral nutritionist, specialising in bloodstock and performance horses.
From genetics to functional anatomy, cell biology to the equine digestive system, Equine Science, Third Edition covers all the essential scientific knowledge you need for your equine programme. Thoroughly updated, this new edition features a clear, systematic presentation, stunning full-colour photographs and illustrations, chapter summary points and self-assessment questions throughout. Describes the structure and function of the various body systems of the horse Explains the scientific rationale behind modern equine training practices Features new chapters on exercise physiology and the evolution of the horse Reflects the latest scientific advances and changes in the student curriculum Includes new information on circadian rhythms and sleep patterns, the immune system and hindgut microbiology. A powerful teaching and learning aid, Equine Science, Third Edition is an essential text for students on higher education equine studies and equine science programmes, as well as those studying for BHS qualifications up to BHSII Stage 4 Horse Knowledge and Care.

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