Environmental Colloids and ParticlesBehaviour, Separation and Characterisation
Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems, Band 10 1. Aufl.
This text presents the current knowledge of environmental colloids and includes reviews of the current understanding of structure, role and behaviour of environmental colloids and particles, whilst focussing directly on aquatic systems and soils. In addition, there is substantial critical assessment of the techniques employed for the sampling, size fractionation and characterisation of colloids and particles. Chemical, physical and biological processes and interactions involving colloids are described, and particular attention is paid to quantitative approaches that take account of particle heterogeneity and polydispersity. Presents critical reviews of the state-of-the-art knowledge of environmental colloids Critical assessment of techniques employed for the sampling, size fractionation and characterisation of colloids and particles are given Theoretical and experimental aspects of the methods as well as the required developments and possible recommendations are discussed Each chapter gives a brief introduction general enough for the non-specialist Written by a internationally recognized group of contributors
List of Contributors. Series Preface. Preface. 1 Environmental Colloids and Particles: Current Knowledge and Future Developments (Jamie R. Lead and Kevin J. Wilkinson). 2 Colloidal Properties of Submicron Particles in Natural Waters (Montserrat Filella). 3 Colloid–Trace Element Interactions in Aquatic Systems (Frederic J. Doucet, Jamie R. Lead and Peter H. Santschi). 4 Ultrafiltration and its Applications to Sampling and Characterisation of Aquatic Colloids (Laodong Guo and Peter H. Santschi). 5 Characterisation of Aquatic Colloids and Macromolecules by Field-flow Fractionation (Martin Hassell¨ov, Frank von der Kammer and Ronald Beckett). 6 Modern Electrophoretic Techniques for the Characterisation of Natural Organic Matter (Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin and Jens Junkers). 7 Electrophoresis of Soft Colloids: Basic Principles and Applications (Jérome F. L. Duval). 8 Strategies and Advances in the Characterisation of Environmental Colloids by Electron Microscopy (Denis Mavrocordatos, Didier Perret and Gary G. Leppard). 9 Force Microscopy and Force Measurements of Environmental Colloids (Eric Balnois, Georg Papastavrou, and Kevin J. Wilkinson). 10 Laser Scanning Microscopy for Microbial Flocs and Particles (John R. Lawrence and Thomas R. Neu). 11 Study of Environmental Systems by Means of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (Nicolas Fatin-Rouge and Jacques Buffle). 12 Laser-induced Breakdown Detection (Jae-il Kim and Clemens Walther). 13 Probing Environmental Colloids and Particles with X-rays (Jean-François Gaillard). Index.
"...as an editor I am impressed by the contributors’ knowledge and citation of the literature. The volume’s contributors exceeded all my expectations…" (Journal of Hazardous Metals, July 19, 2007)
Professor Kevin J. Wilkinson, CABE, Dept. of Analytical, Inorganic and Applied Chemistry, University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland Research Interests include Aggregate formation mechanisms, Bioavailability studies, Determination of biopolymer conformations, concentrations and roles, and Field studies. Dr Jamie Lead, Lecturer, Division of Environmental Health and Risk Management, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK Dr Lead obtained a BSc. in Environmental Science in the School of Chemical and Molecular Sciences at the University of Sussex in 1990. After a year out of academia, he moved to Lancaster University where he completed a PhD on the role of humic substances in the chemistry of lanthanides and actinides in freshwaters and soils in 1994.
The IUPAC Series on Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems provides the scientific community with a critical evaluation of important physicochemical structures and reactions in environmental systems, as well as on the analytical techniques required to study them. The series is aimed at promoting rigorous analysis and understanding of the physicochemical functioning of environmental systems. In spite of decades of research, the precise role of colloids and nanoparticles in environmental systems is still poorly understood. For example, in surface waters, trace elements are usually bound to colloids, although values of 0-100% binding have been observed based upon the element that is measured, the analytical technique that is employed, the type of water and other factors. In soils and sediments, colloid-facilitated transport is a well known, though rarely quantified, process. Bioavailability and biological effects are likely to be strongly modified by interactions with colloids, but few studies are able to distinguish between complexation effects and direct effects on the organism. While the lack of consensus can often be attributed to the trace element that has been examined, or the nature of the medium in which it occurred, a large variability is often introduced by the analytical technique used to make the determination and by the fact that environmental colloids are always chemically heterogeneous and polydisperse. Given the complexity of the environmental colloids, this book was written in order to: (i) identify some of the common problems still needing study in colloid research; (ii) summarise our current understanding of environmental colloids and their reactions and (iii) carefully and critically describe a number of important techniques to characterise physical and chemical colloidal properties. Each chapter is designed to be an independent, critical review of the available literature. An emphasis has been placed on modern and novel applications of techniques that have not been previously examined in detail and on techniques that have seen vast methodological improvements over the past ten years. Both characterisation techniques that look at whole samples and those examining properties of sample fractions have been described. Several chapters review our most recent understanding of the environmental colloids and identify colloidal properties that will need further study in the future. This book is relevant for academic and industrial researchers in the field of colloid science. For chapters describing the state-of-the-art research in the field, the literature has been reviewed to bring together the large quantity of independent (and often contradictory) data that are available. In the chapters that describe the analytical techniques that are used to characterise (environmental) colloids, a necessary theoretical explanation of the technique is provided in addition to a critical discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of the application. The book is thus accessible to graduate students who are entering the field yet also useful to more experienced researchers who are interested in deepening their understanding about these difficult to characterise, but critically important phases.
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