Details

Emerging Pollutants


Emerging Pollutants

Origin, Structure, and Properties
1. Aufl.

von: Francisco G. Calvo-Flores, Joaquin Isac-Garcia, Jose A. Dobado

151,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 01.11.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9783527691234
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 3000

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Beschreibungen

An excellent, concise, and interdisciplinary overview of different classes of emerging pollutants arising, for example, from pharmaceuticals, pesticides, personal care products, and industrial chemicals and their impact on water, soil, and air. Following an introduction to chemical pollutants, with special attention focused on organic compounds and their properties, the book goes on to describe major emerging pollutants grouped according to their applications in different sectors of industrial or economic activity. For each type of compound, the chemical structure, main properties, and source are presented, along with their fate in the environment as pollutants, the latest analytical methods for detection, possible health or ecology consequences, as well as current regulatory laws. New developments, such as nanotechnology as a pollution source, are also included. The book closes with a chapter devoted to conclusions and future perspectives.
Epigraph xv Abbreviations xvii Glossary xxiii Preface xxvii Acknowledgment xxix 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Chemistry and Development 1 1.2 Pollution and Contamination 3 1.3 Chemical pollutants 4 1.4 Pollutants in the Environment 6 1.5 Concept of Emerging Pollutants 7 1.6 Historical Background of Emerging Pollutants 8 1.7 Classification of Emerging Pollutants 9 1.8 Regulations and Normatives 11 References 13 2 Occurrence and Removal of Environmental Pollutants 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Pollutants in the Atmosphere 19 2.3 Pollutants in Ground and SurfaceWaters: Quality Parameters 20 2.4 Pollutants in the Ground and Soil 23 2.5 Sources of Emerging Pollutants or CECs 23 2.5.1 CECs fromWWTPs 24 2.5.2 CECs inWastewater Biosolids 25 2.5.3 CECs from Agriculture and Livestock 25 2.5.4 CECs in Soils 26 2.5.5 CECs in Groundwater 27 2.5.6 CECs in Landfill 28 2.5.7 CECs in Seawater 29 2.6 Treatment of CECs 30 2.6.1 Treatment of CECs inWWTPs 30 2.6.1.1 Physical Methods 30 2.6.1.2 Chemical Methods 31 2.6.1.3 Biological Methods 32 2.6.2 Treatment of CECs in Landfill Leachates 32 2.6.3 Wastewater Reuse 33 2.7 Toxicity of CECs 34 References 37 3 Detection and Analysis of Chemical Pollutants 43 3.1 Introduction 43 3.2 Sample Preparation 43 3.2.1 Extraction with Organic Solvents 44 3.2.2 Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE) 44 3.2.3 Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction (DLLME) 45 3.2.4 Vortex-Assisted Liquid–Liquid Microextraction (VALLME) 45 3.2.5 Single-Drop Microextraction 45 3.2.6 Solid-Phase Extraction (SPE) 46 3.2.7 Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) 47 3.2.8 Dispersive Solid Phase Microextraction (DSPE/DSPME) 47 3.2.9 Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion (MSPD) 48 3.2.10 Passive Sampling 48 3.2.11 Immunosorbent Extraction 49 3.2.12 Extraction of Volatile Compounds 49 3.2.13 Online Extraction 50 3.2.14 Extraction with Nanomaterials 50 3.2.15 Sampling from Biological Materials 50 3.3 AnalyticalMethods for Identifying EPs 50 3.3.1 SeparationMethods 52 3.3.2 CharacterizationMethods 52 References 53 4 Overview of Pharmaceutical Products as Emerging Pollutants 57 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 Therapeutic Classes of PCs Detected in the Environment 59 4.3 Sources of PCs in the Environment 59 4.4 Detection and Analysis of PCs in the Environment 61 4.5 Occurrence of PCs in the Environment 63 4.5.1 Pharmaceuticals inWWTPs 64 4.5.2 PCs in HospitalWastewater 64 4.5.3 PCs in SurfaceWater and Groundwater 66 4.5.4 PCs in Seawater 68 4.5.5 PCs in DrinkingWater 68 4.5.6 PCs in Soil 69 4.6 Ecotoxicological Aspects of PCs on Environment 72 4.7 Removal of PCs 75 4.7.1 Conventional Systems for Removing PCs inWater-Treatment Systems 76 4.7.2 Adsorption on Activated Carbon 77 4.7.3 Technologies Based on Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) 77 4.7.3.1 AOPs Based on Ozone 77 4.7.3.2 AOPs Based on UV Radiation 77 4.7.3.3 AOPs Based on ?-Radiation 79 4.7.3.4 Electro-Oxidation with and without Active Chlorine Generation 79 4.8 Conclusions 79 References 80 5 Therapeutic Classes of PCs in the Environment 103 5.1 Introduction 103 5.2 Antibiotics (ABs) 105 5.2.1 Chemical Classes of Antibiotics 105 5.2.2 The Problem of the Resistance of Antibiotics 114 5.2.3 Antibiotics in the Environment 114 5.2.4 Degradation/Removal of Antibiotics 116 5.2.5 An Example of ABs in the Environment: Sulfonamides 116 5.3 Estrogens and Hormonal Compounds 117 5.3.1 Estrogens in the Environment 117 5.4 Drugs with Endocrine Disruption Properties 120 5.5 Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antiarthritic, and Antirheumatic Compounds 124 5.5.1 Non-Narcotic Analgesics Drugs 124 5.5.2 Narcotic Analgesics Drugs 125 5.5.3 Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) 125 5.5.3.1 Diclofenac 126 5.5.3.2 Ibuprofen 127 5.5.3.3 Naproxen 128 5.5.3.4 Ketoprofen 128 5.5.3.5 Mefenamic Acid 128 5.6 Psychotropic Drugs 128 5.6.1 Environmental Impact of Psychotropic Drugs 129 5.7 Antiepileptic Drugs 131 5.8 ?-Blockers/Diuretics 133 5.8.1 ?-Blockers in the Environment 133 5.9 Lipid Regulators 135 5.10 ?2-Sympathomimetic Drugs 136 5.11 Antidiabetic Drugs 138 5.12 X-Ray Contrast Drugs: Diagnostic Agents 139 5.13 Cytostatic PCs: Antineoplastics 140 5.14 Veterinary Drugs: Anthelmintics 141 5.14.1 Classes of Anthelmintics 142 5.14.2 Anthelmintics in the Environment 145 References 146 6 Illegal Drugs, Occurrence, and Fate in Environment 167 6.1 Introduction 167 6.2 What is an Illicit Drug? 168 6.2.1 Differences Between Licit and Illicit Drugs as Environmental Contaminants 169 6.3 Classes of Illicit Drugs 171 6.3.1 Opiates 171 6.3.1.1 Opiates in the Environment 171 6.3.2 Other Central Nervous System Depressants 172 6.3.3 Central Nervous System Stimulants: Cocaine 173 6.3.3.1 Cocaine in the Environment 173 6.3.4 Central-Nervous-System Stimulants: Amphetamine-Type Substances (ATSs) 173 6.3.4.1 Amphetamine-Type Substances in the Environment 176 6.3.5 Hallucinogens 176 6.3.6 Cannabis 177 6.3.6.1 Cannabis and its Metabolites in the Environment 177 6.4 AnalyticalMethods for Detecting of Illicit Drugs 177 6.5 Illicit Drugs in the Environmental Compartments 178 6.5.1 Illicit Drugs inWastewater 179 6.5.2 Illicit Drugs in SurfaceWater 181 6.5.3 Illicit Drugs in Seawater 182 6.5.4 Illicit Drugs in DrinkingWater 182 6.5.5 Illicit Drugs in Soil 183 6.5.6 Illicit Drugs in Ambient Air 184 6.5.7 Illicit Drugs on Currency Notes 184 6.6 Estimation of Drug Consumption in Communities (Sewage-Based Epidemiology) 185 References 187 7 Pesticides as Pollutants 197 7.1 Introduction 197 7.2 Classification of Pesticides 198 7.2.1 Classification of Pesticides by Activity 199 7.2.2 Classification of Pesticides by Toxicity 199 7.2.3 Classification of Pesticides by Chemical Structure 200 7.3 Organic Pesticides 200 7.3.1 Organochlorine Pesticides 200 7.3.2 Organophosphorus Pesticides 202 7.3.3 Carbamates 203 7.3.4 Thiocarbamates 204 7.3.5 Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids 205 7.3.6 Phenoxy Carboxylic Acids 205 7.3.7 Triazines 206 7.3.8 Uracils and Ureas 207 7.3.9 Azoles and Related Compounds 208 7.3.10 Morpholine Derivatives 209 7.3.11 Bipyridines 210 7.3.12 Amides 211 7.3.13 Neonicotinoids 211 7.3.14 Other Classes of Herbicides 213 7.3.14.1 Pyridazines and Pyridazinones 213 7.3.14.2 Nitrile Herbicides 213 7.3.14.3 Dinitroanilines 213 7.3.14.4 Pyridine Herbicides 214 7.3.14.5 Pyrimidines 214 7.4 Pesticides in the Environment 215 7.4.1 Degradation and Transformation of Pesticides in Environment 217 7.4.2 Pesticide TPs in the Environment 217 7.4.3 Analysis of Pesticides 218 7.4.4 Pesticides inWater 220 7.5 An Example of National Survey: Pesticides in Italy 221 7.6 An Example of Pesticides in the Environment: Neonicotinoid Insecticides 223 References 224 8 Lifestyle Products as Emerging Pollutants 233 8.1 Introduction 233 8.2 Stimulants 233 8.2.1 Caffeine 234 8.2.1.1 Caffeine in the Environment 234 8.2.2 Nicotine 236 8.2.2.1 Cigarettes in the Environment 237 8.2.2.2 Nicotine in the Environment 237 8.3 Food Additives 238 8.3.1 Toxicology of Food Additives 239 8.3.2 Global Regulation on Food Additives 240 8.4 Classes of Food Additives 241 8.4.1 Substances with Nutritive and Other Dietary Effects 241 8.4.1.1 Vitamins and Provitamins 241 8.4.1.2 Amino Acids 242 8.4.1.3 Minerals and Trace Elements 242 8.4.1.4 Bulking Agents 242 8.4.2 Substances with Stabilizing Effects 242 8.4.2.1 Preservatives 242 8.4.2.2 Antioxidants 242 8.4.2.3 Synergists and Sequestrants 243 8.4.2.4 Packaging Gases 243 8.4.2.5 Stabilizers 244 8.4.3 Substances with Sensory Effects (Organoleptic Substances) 245 8.4.3.1 Coloring Agents 245 8.4.3.2 Color Stabilizers 245 8.4.3.3 Bleaching Agents 246 8.4.3.4 Intense Sweeteners 246 8.4.3.5 Nutritive Sweeteners 246 8.4.3.6 Acidulants 246 8.4.3.7 Substances with a Salty Taste 246 8.4.3.8 Substances with a Bitter Taste 246 8.4.3.9 Substances with an Alkaline Taste 246 8.4.3.10 Flavor Enhancers 246 8.4.3.11 Spices and Flavorings 247 8.4.3.12 Chewing-Gum Bases 247 8.4.4 Substances as Processing Aids 247 8.4.4.1 Extractants 247 8.4.4.2 Clarifying Agents 248 8.4.4.3 Filter Aids 248 8.4.4.4 Propellants 248 8.4.4.5 Cooling Agents and Cryogens 248 8.4.4.6 Mold-Release Agents 248 8.4.4.7 Antifoaming Agents 248 8.4.4.8 Acidity Regulators 249 8.4.4.9 Emulsifying Salts 249 8.4.4.10 Dough Conditioners and Flour Improvers 249 8.4.4.11 Leavening Agents 249 8.4.4.12 Enzymes 249 8.4.4.13 Microbial Cultures 249 8.4.5 Dietary Supplements 249 8.5 Food Additives as Emerging Organic Contaminants 250 8.6 Antioxidants in the Environment 250 8.7 Artificial Sweeteners in the Environment 251 8.7.1 Metabolism of Artificial Sweeteners 252 8.7.2 Occurrence of the Artificial Sweeteners in the Environment 253 8.7.3 Artificial Sweeteners as Pollution Markers 255 8.7.3.1 Ecotoxicological Studies on Sucralose 256 References 257 9 Industrial Chemicals as Emerging Pollutant 265 9.1 Introduction 265 9.2 Perfluorinated Alkyl Substances (PFASs) 266 9.2.1 PFASs in the Environment 268 9.2.2 Analysis of PFASs 269 9.2.3 Toxicology and Regulation of PFASs 270 9.3 Plasticizers 271 9.3.1 Bisphenol A (BPA) 271 9.3.1.1 BPA in the environment 272 9.3.1.2 Toxicology and regulation of bisphenol A (BPA) 273 9.3.2 Phthalates 274 9.3.2.1 Phthalates in the environment 276 9.3.2.2 Toxicology and regulation of phthalates 279 9.3.3 N-Butylbenzenesulfonamide (NBBSA) 280 9.3.3.1 NBBSA in the Environment 280 9.4 Flame Retardants 281 9.5 Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) 281 9.5.1 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) 282 9.5.2 Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) 289 9.5.3 Polybrominated Biphenyls (PBBs) 291 9.5.4 Hexabromobenzene (HBB) 291 9.5.5 Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) 292 9.5.6 Decabromodiphenyl Ethane (DBDPE) 292 9.5.7 1,2-Bis(2,4,6-Tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE) 292 9.6 Polychlorinated Alkanes (C10–C13) 292 9.6.1 Use and Consumption of PCAs 293 9.6.2 Properties of PCAs 294 9.6.3 PCAs in the Environment 295 9.6.4 Toxicology and Regulations of PCAs 296 9.7 Organophosphate Flame Retardants (OPFRs) 297 9.7.1 Use and Demand of OPFRs 297 9.7.2 Properties of OPFRs 298 9.7.3 OPFRs in the Environment 299 9.7.4 Toxicology and Regulations of OPFRs 300 9.8 Corrosion Inhibitors: Benzothiazoles and Benzotriazoles 302 9.8.1 Benzotriazoles 302 9.8.2 Benzothiazoles 303 9.9 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) 304 9.10 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) 306 9.10.1 Hazardous Compounds Originating from Oil Products 308 9.10.2 Gasoline Additives: MTBE 309 9.11 Other Industrial Chemicals 310 9.11.1 Siloxanes 310 9.11.2 1,4-Dioxane 311 9.11.3 Nitroaromatic Compounds 311 9.11.3.1 2,4-Dinitrophenol 312 9.11.4 Naphthenic Acids 312 9.11.5 Other Chlorinated Compounds 312 9.11.6 Perchlorate 313 References 314 10 Surfactants in the Environment 341 10.1 Introduction 341 10.2 Structure and Classification 342 10.3 Nonionic Surfactants 343 10.3.1 Fatty Alcohols 344 10.3.2 Alcohol Ethoxylates 344 10.3.3 Ethylene Oxide/Propylene Oxide-Block Polymers 345 10.3.4 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates 345 10.3.5 Ethoxylated Oils and Fats 346 10.3.6 Alkanolamides 346 10.3.7 Esters 347 10.3.8 Nonionic Surfactants Derived from Carbohydrates and Related Compounds 347 10.3.8.1 Alkyl Polyglucosides 348 10.3.8.2 Sorbitan Esters 348 10.3.8.3 Alkyl Carbohydrate Esters 349 10.3.9 Ester/Ether Surfactants 349 10.3.9.1 Ethoxylated Glycol and Glycerol Esters 350 10.3.9.2 Ethoxylated Sorbitan Esters 350 10.3.9.3 Ethoxylated Pentaerythritol Esters 350 10.3.9.4 Polyglycerol Monoester 350 10.3.10 Amine Oxides 351 10.4 Anionic Surfactants 351 10.4.1 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives 351 10.4.1.1 Carboxylic Acid Salts 351 10.4.1.2 Ether Carboxylic Acids 352 10.4.2 Sulfuric and Sulfonic Acid Derivatives 353 10.4.2.1 Alkyl Sulfates 353 10.4.2.2 Alkyl Sulfonates 353 10.4.2.3 Alkylbenzene Sulfonates 354 10.4.2.4 Sulfosuccinates 354 10.4.2.5 Sulfo Fatty Acid Esters 355 10.4.2.6 Fatty Acid Isethionates and Taurides 355 10.4.3 Phosphoric Acid Esters and Salts 356 10.4.4 Acylamino Acids and Salts 356 10.5 Cationic Surfactants 357 10.5.1 Alkyl Amines 357 10.5.2 Alkylimidazolines 358 10.5.3 Quaternary Ammonium Compounds 358 10.5.3.1 Tetraalkyl(-aryl) Ammonium Salts 358 10.5.3.2 Heterocyclic Ammonium Salts 358 10.5.4 Ethoxylated Alkyl Amines 359 10.5.5 Esterified Quaternaries 360 10.6 Amphoteric Surfactants 360 10.6.1 Acyl Ethylenediamines and Derivatives 360 10.6.2 N-Alkyl Amino Acids or Imino Diacids 361 10.6.3 Alkyl Betaines 361 10.7 Alkoxylated Polysiloxanes 362 10.8 Fluorosurfactants 362 10.9 Toxicological Aspects (Environmental Impact) of Surfactants 363 10.9.1 Environmental Impact of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEOs) 364 10.10 Environmental Occurrence of the Surfactants 365 10.10.1 Alkylphenol Ethoxylates (APEOs), andTheir Degradation Products in the Environment 366 10.10.2 LASs and Their Degradation Products 368 10.11 Biodegradation of Surfactants 368 10.11.1 Aerobic Biodegradation 371 10.11.2 Anerobic Biodegradation 371 References 373 11 Personal-Care Products 385 11.1 Introduction 385 11.2 Musks: Fragrances 385 11.3 Biocides 388 11.3.1 Triclosan 389 11.3.2 Chlorophene and Dichlorophene 391 11.3.3 Parabens 392 11.4 Sunscreen Agents: UV Filters 396 11.4.1 Analysis of UV-Filters 397 11.4.2 UV-Filters as Endocrine Disrupters 398 11.4.3 UV Filters in the Environment 399 11.4.3.1 Benzophenone Derivatives in the Environment 401 11.4.3.2 3-Benzylidene- and 4-Methylbenzylidene-Camphor in the Environment 402 11.5 Insect Repellents: N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) 403 11.6 Other PCPs 405 References 407 12 Water Disinfectant By-Products 423 12.1 Introduction 423 12.2 Wastewater Treatments 424 12.2.1 Water Reuse 425 12.2.2 DrinkingWater Treatments 425 12.2.3 Water Disinfection 425 12.3 Disinfection Methods 426 12.3.1 Chlorination 426 12.3.2 Chlorine Dioxide 427 12.3.3 Chloramination 428 12.3.4 Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate 428 12.3.5 Ozonization 429 12.3.6 UV Irradiation 429 12.3.7 Other Methods of Disinfection 429 12.4 Water DPBs 430 12.4.1 DBPs from Chlorination 430 12.4.2 Other Halogenated DBPs 432 12.4.3 Nitrogenous DBPs 433 12.4.4 Carbonaceous DPBs from Ozonation 435 12.5 Methods of Analysis of DBPs 435 12.6 Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) in DrinkingWater 437 12.7 Disinfection By-Products in Swimming Pools 438 12.8 Changes in Oxidation/Disinfection Strategies 439 12.9 Toxicological Studies on DBPs 441 12.10 Regulations/Guidelines of DBPs in DrinkingWater 442 References 444 13 Other Contaminants of Emerging Concern 453 13.1 Introduction 453 13.2 Nanotechnology as a Pollution Source 453 13.2.1 Detection of NMs 454 13.2.2 NMs in the Environment 456 13.2.3 Toxicity of NMs 457 13.3 Microplastics (MPs) 458 13.4 Toxic Elements and Elemental Species 460 13.4.1 Arsenic (As) 462 13.4.2 Cadmium (Cd) 462 13.4.3 Lead (Pb) 463 13.4.4 Mercury (Hg) 464 13.4.5 Manganese (Mn) 465 13.4.6 Antimony (Sb) 466 13.4.7 Technology-Critical Elements 466 13.4.8 Radionuclides 467 13.5 Biotoxins 467 13.5.1 Mycotoxins 468 13.5.2 Algal Toxins 469 13.5.3 Other Marine Toxins 472 13.5.3.1 Cyclic Imines 472 13.5.3.2 Ciguatoxins 472 13.5.3.3 Azaspiracids (AZAs) 472 13.5.3.4 Tetrodoxin (TTX) 472 13.5.3.5 Palitoxins 473 13.5.4 Bacterial Toxins 473 13.5.5 Naturally Occurring Toxins in Vegetable Foodstuffs 473 13.6 Microorganisms 473 13.7 Contaminants on the Horizon: Ionic Liquids and Prions 474 References 475 A InChI Key for theMost Relevant Compounds in this Book 487 Index 493
Francisco Garcia Calvo-Flores is Associate Professor in the Department of Organic Chemistry at the University of Granada. He has received his PhD at the University in Granada. After that he worked in the group of Prof. Gabor Lukacs at the "Institut de Chemie des Substances Naturelles du CNRS" (Gif-sur-Yvette, France) before he got his current position. His main research areas are Green Chemistry and Carbohydrate Chemistry. Joaquin Isac Garcia is Associate Professor at the University of Granada. After having received his PhD in 1985, he became a postdoctoral fellow at the "Institut de Chemie des Substances Naturelles du CNRS" (Gif-sur-Yvette, France) (Prof. Gabor Lukacs) before he started his academic career at the current position. Jose A. Dobado Jimenez is Associate Professor in the Department of Organic Chemistry at the University of Granada. After having received his PhD he became Postdoc at Zurich University in the group of Professor Nonella and at the Helsinki University under Prof. M. R. Sundberg before he started his independent career in Granada. His research area is Computational Chemistry.

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