Details

Electricity from Sunlight


Electricity from Sunlight

Photovoltaic-Systems Integration and Sustainability
2. Aufl.

von: Vasilis M. Fthenakis, Paul A. Lynn

70,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 10.01.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9781118963777
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 360

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Praised for its visual appeal, conversational style and clear explanation of complex ideas with minimal mathematics, Electricity from Sunlight has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in the global PV market, economics and installed capacity. Key features of the 2nd edition include: A timely update of the advances of photovoltaics (PV), with major new material on grid-connected systems. More in-depth treatment of PV scientific principles, solar cells, modules, and systems. Up-to-date coverage of the PV market including conversion efficiencies and the expansion of grid-friendly power plants. End-of-chapter questions to support instructors and students through guided self-study. New chapters on manufacturing processes and on materials and other resources availability. New large-scale PV section covering the growth of global capacity, utility-scale PV and affordable solutions for intermittency. Systems analysis of new applications empowered by low-cost PV, such as energy storage and water desalination. Significantly expanded economics and environmental section explaining leveled cost of electricity versus upfront costs, energy return on investments, and lifecycle analysis. Electricity from Sunlight: Photovoltaics Systems Integration and Sustainability, Second Edition is an essential primer for new entrants to the PV industry, needing a basic appreciation of complete PV systems, and to students on undergraduate and graduate courses on renewable energy and photovoltaics.  It also offers a unique treatise of the sustainability of emerging transformative technologies, which makes it useful to both system analysts and energy policy strategists.
About the Authors xi Foreword xiii Preface to the First Edition xv Preface to the Second Edition xvii Acknowledgment to the First Edition xix Acknowledgment to the Second Edition xxiii About the Companion Website xxv 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Energy and Sustainable Development 1 1.2 The Sun, Earth, and Renewable Energy 2 1.3 The Solar Resource 6 1.4 The Magic of Photovoltaics 11 1.5 A Piece of History 13 1.6 Coming Up to Date 17 Appendix 1.A Energy Units and Conversions 22 CO2 Emissions per Fuel Type 22 CO2 Emissions in Transportation 23 Self?]Assessment Questions 23 Problems 24 Answers to Questions 25 References 25 2 Solar Cells 27 2.1 Setting the Scene 27 2.2 Crystalline Silicon 30 2.2.1 The Ideal Crystal 30 2.2.2 The p–n Junction 32 2.2.3 Monocrystalline Silicon 35 2.2.3.1 Photons in Action 35 2.2.3.2 Generating Power 37 2.2.3.3 Sunlight, Silicon, and Quantum Mechanics 41 2.2.3.4 Refining the Design 45 2.2.4 Multicrystalline Silicon 51 2.3 Second?]Generation Photovoltaics 52 2.3.1 Amorphous and Thin?]Film Silicon 53 2.3.2 Copper Indium Gallium Diselenide (CIGS) 57 2.3.3 Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) 60 2.4 Cell Efficiency and Module Cost 61 2.5 Third?]Generation Solar Cells 64 2.5.1 Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) Multi?]Junctions 65 2.5.2 Dye?]Sensitized Cells 67 2.5.3 Organic Solar Cells 69 2.5.4 Perovskites 72 Self?]Assessment Questions 73 Problems 75 Answers to Questions 76 References 77 3 PV Modules and Arrays 79 3.1 Introduction 79 3.2 Electrical Performance 82 3.2.1 Connecting Cells and Modules 82 3.2.2 Module Parameters 85 3.3 Capturing Sunlight 88 3.3.1 Aligning the Array 92 3.3.2 Sunshine and Shadow 98 3.4 One?]Axis Tracking 101 3.5 Concentration and Two?]Axis Tracking 102 Appendix 3.A 107 3.A.1 Converting Global Horizontal Irradiation Data to Tilted and Sun?]Tracking Surfaces 107 3.A.1.1 Solar Data Collection 108 3.A.1.2 Calculation of Extraterrestrial Radiation 108 3.A.1.3 Determining the Diffuse and the Direct Components of the Global Horizontal Irradiation 110 3.A.1.4 Using a Model to Calculate the Energy Incident on the Inclined Surface per Time Increment 111 3.A.1.5 Comparisons of Different Configurations 114 Self?]Assessment Questions 114 Problems 115 Answers to Questions 119 References 120 4 Grid?]Connected PV Systems 121 4.1 Introduction 121 4.2 From DC to AC 122 4.3 Completing the System 128 4.4 Building?]Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV) 130 4.4.1 Engineering and Architecture 130 4.4.2 PV Outside, PV Inside 132   4.5 The Growth of Global PV Markets 140 4.6 Current Status of the PV Industry 144 4.7 Large PV Power Plants 145 4.7.1 Commercial and Industrial Installations 147 4.7.2 Utility?]Scale PV 147 4.8 PV Grid Connection and Integration 155 4.8.1 The Electricity Grid 155 4.8.2 Grid?]Friendly PV Power Plants 157 4.9 Electricity Markets and Types of Power Generators 160 4.10 The Variability Challenge and Solutions 164 4.10.1 Long?]Distance Transmission Lines 167 4.10.2 Grid Flexibility 168 4.11 Energy Storage 170 4.11.1 Power?]Quality Storage Technologies 171 4.11.1.1 Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage 171 4.11.1.2 Electric Double?]Layer Capacitors 172 4.11.1.3 Flywheels 173 4.11.2 Bridging Power 173 4.11.2.1 Lead?]Acid Batteries 173 4.11.2.2 Lithium?]Ion Batteries 175 4.11.2.3 Flow Batteries 176 4.11.3. Energy Management Storage Technologies 178 4.11.3.1 Pumped Hydro Energy Storage 178 4.11.3.2 Compressed Air Energy Storage 179 Self?]Assessment Questions 182 Problems 183 Answers to Questions 184 References 185 5 Stand?]Alone PV Systems 187 5.1 Remote and Independent 187 5.2 System Components 189 5.2.1 Batteries 189 5.2.2 Charge Controllers 193 5.2.3 Inverters 198 5.3 Hybrid Systems 202 5.4 System Sizing 204 5.4.1 Assessing the Problem 204 5.4.2 PV Arrays and Battery Banks 207 5.5 Applications 211 5.5.1 PV in Space 212 5.5.2 Island Electricity 215 5.5.3 PV Water Pumping 219 5.5.4 Solar?]Enabled Water Desalination 223 5.5.5 Solar?]Powered Boats 225 5.5.6 Far and Wide 230 Self?]Assessment Questions 233 Problems 234 Answers to Questions 235 References 235 6 Photovoltaic Manufacturing 237 6.1 Production of Crystalline Si Solar Cells 237 6.1.1 Production of Metallurgical Silicon 237 6.1.2 Production of Polysilicon (Silicon Purification) 238 6.1.3 Production of Crystalline Silicon 243 6.1.3.1 Single?]Crystal Silicon 244 6.1.3.2 Multicrystalline Silicon 245 6.1.4 Ingot Wafering 246 6.1.5 Doping/Forming the p–n Junction 248 6.1.6 Cleaning Etch 249 6.1.7 Surface Texturing to Reduce Reflection 249 6.1.8 Antireflection Coatings and Fire?]Through Contacts 249 6.1.9 Edge Isolation 249 6.1.10 Rear Contact 249 6.1.11 Encapsulation 249 6.2 Opportunities and Challenges in Si PV Manufacturing 250 6.3 Thin?]Film PV Manufacturing 253 6.3.1 CIGS Thin?]Film Manufacturing 254 6.3.1.1 Co?]evaporation 257 6.3.1.2 Metal Selenization/Sulfurization 257 6.3.1.3 Non?]Vacuum Particle or Solution Processing 258 6.3.2 CdTe PV Manufacturing 258 Self?]Assessment Questions 261 Problems 262 Answers to Questions 263 References 263 7 PV Growth and Sustainability 265 7.1 Affordability 266 7.1.1 Costs and Markets 266 7.1.2 Financial Incentives 272 7.1.2.1 Capital Grants 272 7.1.2.2 Special Tariffs 274 7.1.2.3 Financing Options 275 7.1.2.4 Renewable Portfolio Standards 276 7.1.2.5 Carbon Fees/Programs 276 7.1.3 Rural Electrification 279 7.1.4 External Costs and Benefits 283 7.1.5 Policy Recommendations for Further Growing Solar Energy 284 7.1.5.1 R&D Funding 284 7.1.5.2 Solar Financing Flexibility 284 7.2 Resource Availability 285 7.2.1 Raw Materials 285 7.2.2 Land Use 290 7.2.3 Water Use 293 7.3 Life?]Cycle Environmental Impacts 295 7.3.1 Life?]Cycle Analysis 295 7.3.2 Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) in PV Manufacturing 306 7.3.3 Recycling Programs 311 7.4 The Growth of PV is Sustainable and Greatly Needed 315 Self?]Assessment Questions 316 Problems 316 Answers to Questions 317 References 318 Index 321
"This thoroughly readable and attractively illustrated volume certainly deserves a place on many a bookshelf." (Underwater Technology, 1 March 2014) "With 165 full-colour illustrations and photographs of devices at an advanced stage, this book is both a valuable primer on marine energy and an inspiring picture of today"s most promising marine energy devices and developments." (Real Power magazine, 1 October 2013)
VASILIS FTHENAKIS, Center for Life Cycle Analysis (CLCA), Department of Earth & Environmental Engineering, Columbia University, New York, USA Vasilis Fthenakis, the founder and director of the CLCA, also leads the National PV Environmental Health and Safety (EHS) Research Center operating at Brookhaven National Lab (BNL). He specializes in the area of PV and the environment and his current research is focused on: recycling, life-cycle environmental impact analysis, air pollution prevention and control, and modeling of accidental chemical releases. Vasilis Fthenakis has authored one book and numerous conference proceedings, book chapters and journal articles. PAUL A LYNN, formerly Imperial College London, UK Paul A Lynn obtained his BSc(Eng) and PhD degrees from Imperial College London, UK. After several years in the electrical/electronics industry he lectured at Imperial College and the University of Bristol, latterly as Reader in Electronic Engineering. In 1993 he became Founding Managing Editor of the prestigious Wiley journal "Progress in Photovoltaics" and held this position for 14 years. As a retired academic, Paul Lynn's continued interest in renewable energy has led to a trilogy of Wiley books and, in his spare time, three solar–powered boats. He is the author of nine other books and numerous technical papers and articles.
A technically authoritative overview of photovoltaics and its practical applications – now including sections on large-scale PV and the sustainability of its growth Praised for its visual appeal, conversational style and clear explanation of complex ideas with minimal mathematics, Electricity from Sunlight has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect advances in the global PV market, economics and installed capacity. Key features of the 2nd edition include: A timely update of the advances of photovoltaics (PV), with major new material on grid-connected systems. More in-depth treatment of PV scientific principles, solar cells, modules, and systems. Up-to-date coverage of the PV market including conversion efficiencies and the expansion of grid-friendly power plants. End-of-chapter questions to support instructors and students through guided self-study. New chapters on manufacturing processes and on materials and other resources availability. New large-scale PV section covering the growth of global capacity, utility-scale PV and affordable solutions for intermittency. Systems analysis of new applications empowered by low-cost PV, such as energy storage and water desalination. Significantly expanded economics and environmental section explaining leveled cost of electricity versus upfront costs, energy return on investments, and lifecycle analysis. Electricity From Sunlight: Photovoltaic-Systems Integration and Sustainability, Second Edition is an essential primer for new entrants to the PV industry, needing a basic appreciation of complete PV systems, and to students on undergraduate and graduate courses on renewable energy and photovoltaics. It also offers a unique treatise of the sustainability of emerging transformative technologies, which makes it useful to both system analysts and energy policy strategists.

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