Details

Construction Law


Construction Law

An Introduction for Engineers, Architects, and Contractors
1. Aufl.

von: Gail Kelley

98,99 €

Verlag: Rsmeans
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 28.08.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9781118360736
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 312

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Beschreibungen

For a construction business to function properly, architects, engineers, and contractors need to understand how the various state and federal laws affect their business and how to avoid disputes and exposure to liability. This book offers a comprehensive review of the US legal environment, both criminal and civil, focusing on the key legal concepts and issues applicable to a typical construction project. Construction professionals will find clear, concise introduction to a wide range of contractual issues related to project participants, as well as issues related to the actual construction and litigation.
Preface xix 1 Law and Government 1 1.1 Introduction / 1 1.1.1 The Powers of Governments / 1 1.1.2 City and County Governments / 2 1.1.3 The Powers of the Federal Government / 2 1.2 The Sources and Hierarchy of Law / 3 1.2.1 The Constitution / 3 1.2.2 Statutes and Ordinances / 3 1.2.3 Agency Regulations / 4 1.2.4 International Treaties / 4 1.2.5 Appellate Court Opinions / 4 1.3 The American Judicial System / 4 1.3.1 Structure of the Court Systems / 5 1.3.2 Federal Trial and Appeals Courts / 5 1.3.3 State Trial and Appeals Courts / 6 1. 4 Common Law / 6 1.4.1 Stare Decisis / 7 1.4.2 Restatements of the Law / 7 1.5 Legal Codes / 8 1.5.1 Uniform Codes / 8 1.5.2 The Uniform Commercial Code / 9 1.6 Legal Doctrines / 9 1.7 Choice-of-Law Clauses / 10 1.8 Criminal Law versus Civil Law / 11 1.9 Cause of Action / 11 1.10 Summary Judgment / 12 2 Basic Legal Principles 15 2.1 Legal Issues in Construction / 15 2.2 Principles of Contract Law / 15 2.2.1 Unilateral Contracts versus Bilateral Contracts / 16 2.2.2 Oral Contracts / 16 2.2.3 Third-Party Benefi ciaries / 17 2.2.4 Contract Interpretation / 17 2.3 Principles of Agency Law / 21 2.3.1 Apparent Authority / 21 2.3.2 The Principal’s Liability for the Agent’s Acts / 22 2.3.3 Ratifi cation / 22 2.4 Principles of Tort Law / 23 2.4.1 Intentional Torts / 23 2.4.2 Unintentional Torts (Negligence) / 23 2.4.3 Strict Liability / 27 2.4.4 Misrepresentation / 28 3 Project Participants 29 3.1 The Owner / 29 3.1.1 Access to the Building Site / 30 3.1.2 Restrictions on Use of the Property / 31 3.2 The Design Professional Team / 31 3.2.1 Site Evaluation Consultants / 32 3.2.2 The Geotechnical Consultant / 33 3.3 The Construction Team / 33 3.3.1 Subcontractors and Suppliers / 34 3.4 Construction Lenders / 34 3.4.1 Collateral Assignment to Lender / 35 3.4.2 Other Lender Requirements / 35 3.4.3 Construction Loans / 36 3.4.4 Bond Financing / 37 4 Project Delivery Systems 39 4.1 Design-Bid-Build / 39 4.2 Multiple Primes / 41 4.3 Construction Management / 41 4.3.1 Agency Construction Management / 42 4.3.2 Construction Management At-Risk (CMAR) / 42 4.4 Design-Build / 43 4.4.1 Design-Build Proposals / 44 4.4.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Design-Build / 45 4.4.3 Bridging Consultants / 46 4.5 Engineer-Procure-Construct (EPC) / 46 4.6 Turnkey Construction / 47 4.7 Integrated Project Delivery (IPD) / 47 4.8 Fast-Track Construction / 47 4.9 Public-Private Partnerships / 48 4.9.1 History of Public-Private Partnerships / 49 4.9.2 Constraints on Public-Private Partnerships / 49 5 Construction Contracts 51 5.1 The Construction Contract / 51 5.1.1 Prebid Conferences / 51 5.1.2 Right to Reject Bids / 52 5.2 The Contract Documents (Owner-Contractor) / 52 5.2.1 The Contractor’s Bid / 53 5.3 Confl icts between the Documents / 54 5.4 Errors in the Documents / 54 5.4.1 Latent Discrepancies / 55 5.5 Specific over General; Written over Printed / 56 5.6 Interpretation against Drafter / 56 5.7 Specifications / 57 5.8 Description of the Work under a Construction Contract / 57 5.9 Third-Party Beneficiaries / 58 5.10 Industry Standard Forms versus Custom Forms / 58 5.10.1 Drafting Custom Forms / 59 5.10.2 AIA Contract Documents / 60 5.10.3 Engineers Joint Contract Documents Committee (EJCDC) / 62 5.10.4 ConsensusDOCS / 63 5.10.5 Comparing the AIA, EJCDC, and ConsensusDOCS Documents / 64 5.10.6 AGC Forms / 65 5.10.7 Other Industry Standard Forms / 65 5.11 Commencement of Work Prior to Contract / 65 5.11.1 Letters of Intent / 66 6 The Design Process 67 6.1 Design Responsibilities / 67 6.1.1 Contractor’s Responsibility for Design / 67 6.1.2 Value Engineering / 68 6.2 The Owner’s Program / 68 6.3 The Design Agreement (Owner-A/E) / 68 6.3.1 Schematic Design Phase / 69 6.3.2 Design Development Phase / 69 6.3.3 Construction Documents Phase / 69 6.3.4 Bidding or Negotiation Phase Services / 70 6.3.5 Construction Phase Services / 70 6.3.6 Basic Services versus Additional Services / 71 6.3.7 The A/E’s Compensation / 71 6.4 Standard of Care Applicable to Design Services / 71 6.4.1 Contractual Standard of Care / 72 6.4.2 Proving Violation of the Standard of Care / 73 6.4.3 Implied Warranties / 73 6.4.4 Designing to the Owner’s Budget / 74 6.4.5 The A/E’s Liability for its Estimate / 74 6.5 Ownership of the Design Documents / 75 6.5.1 Use of the Plans and Specifi cations / 75 6.6 Termination of the Design Agreement / 76 7 The Procurement Process 77 7.1 Selection of Contractors for Public Projects / 77 7.1.1 The Bid Package / 78 7.1.2 Duty to Award to the Lowest Bidder / 78 7.1.3 Bid Responsiveness / 78 7.1.4 Responsible Bidder / 79 7.1.5 Bid Protests / 80 7.1.6 Bid Security / 81 7.1.7 “Best Value” Awards / 81 7.2 Selection of Design Professionals / 82 7.3 Alternatives to Design-Bid-Build in the Public Sector / 83 7.3.1 Design-Build Construction in the Public Sector / 83 7.4 The Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) / 84 7.5 Procurement on Private Projects / 85 8 Pricing Construction Projects 87 8.1 Fixed-Price Contracts / 87 8.1.1 Fundamental Characteristic of a Fixed-Price Contract / 87 8.1.2 Allowances / 88 8.1.3 Material Price Escalation Clauses / 88 8.1.4 Index Pricing / 89 8.2 Cost-Plus Contracts / 89 8.2.1 Labor / 90 8.2.2 Subcontracted Work / 90 8.2.3 Heavy Equipment / 91 8.2.4 Small Tool Allowance / 91 8.2.5 Reasonableness or Necessity of Costs Incurred / 91 8.2.6 Contractor’s Overhead and Profi t / 92 8.2.7 Estimates and Cost-Plus Contracts / 92 8.2.8 Timely Payment Discounts / 93 8.2.9 Audit Rights / 93 8.3 Cost-Plus with Guaranteed Maximum Price / 93 8.4 Unit-Price Contracts / 94 8.4.1 Variation in Estimated Quantities (VEQ) Clauses / 94 8.5 Unbalanced Bidding / 95 8.6 Bidding When the Design Is Incomplete / 96 9 Subcontractors and Suppliers 97 9.1 Subcontractors versus Suppliers / 97 9.2 Owner’s Control over Subcontractor Selection / 98 9.3 Subcontractor Bids / 98 9.3.1 Enforcing a Subcontractor’s Bid / 99 9.3.2 The Subcontractor’s Right to Enforce Its Bid / 100 9.4 Incorporation by Reference / 100 9.5 Flow-down and Flow-up Provisions / 101 9.5.1 Rights and Liabilities of the Parties under Flow-down Provisions / 101 9.6 Duty to Cooperate and Coordinate Subcontract Work / 102 9.6.1 Limiting the Liability for Coordination / 102 9.6.2 Coordination of Multiple Primes / 103 9.7 Subcontractor Payment / 103 9.7.1 “Pay-If-Paid” versus “Pay-When-Paid” / 104 9.8 Subcontractor Claims against the Owner / 105 9.8.1 The Pass-through System / 106 9.8.2 Liquidating Agreements / 106 9.9 Conditional Assignment of the Subcontracts to the Owner / 107 9.10 Minority and Disadvantaged Business Programs / 108 9.10.1 Federal Minority and Disadvantaged Business Programs / 109 9.10.2 Agency DBE Programs / 111 10 Time for Performance 113 10.1 Time Is of the Essence / 113 10.1.1 Time-Is-of-the-Essence Clauses in Construction Contracts / 114 10.2 Date of Commencement/Time for Completion / 114 10.2.1 Delays in Commencement of the Work / 115 10.2.2 Waiver of Time for Completion / 115 10.3 Substantial Completion / 116 10.3.1 The Signifi cance of Substantial Completion / 116 10.3.2 Establishing Substantial Completion / 117 10.4 Final Completion/Final Payment / 117 10.4.1 Acceptance of Defective Work / 118 10.5 Delays / 119 10.5.1 Determining Whether a Delay Was within a Party’s Control / 120 10.5.2 Delays Due to Weather / 121 10.5.3 Concurrent Delays / 122 10.6 Liquidated Damages / 122 10.7 Constructive Acceleration / 124 10.8 Right to Finish Early / 124 10.9 Milestones / 125 11 Construction Scheduling 127 11.1 Bar Charts / 127 11.2 Critical Path Scheduling / 128 11.2.1 Activity Logic / 128 11.2.2 Arrow Diagramming / 128 11.2.3 Precedence Diagramming / 129 11.2.4 As-Planned (Baseline) Schedule / 129 11.2.5 Float / 130 11.2.6 Critical Path / 130 11.2.7 Multiple Calendars / 131 11.3 Scheduling Specifi cations / 131 11.4 Schedule Updates / 132 11.5 Resource Leveling / 132 11.6 CPM-Based Methods for Proof of Delay Claims / 133 11.6.1 Total Time Analysis / 133 11.6.2 Impacted As-Planned (“What-If ”) / 134 11.6.3 Collapsed As-Built (“But For”) / 134 11.6.4 As-Planned versus As-Built / 134 11.6.5 Windows Analysis / 135 11.7 Expert Witness Testimony / 135 11.8 Using CPM to Estimate Extensions of Time / 136 11.9 Using Bar Charts to Prove Delay Claims / 137 12 Contract Administration 139 12.1 The A/E’s Role in Contract Administration / 139 12.2 A/E’s Liability for Contract Administration / 140 12.2.1 Approval of Shop Drawings and Other Submittals / 140 12.2.2 Site Visits and Inspections / 141 12.2.3 AIA B101 Provisions / 142 12.2.4 The Right to Stop Work / 142 12.2.5 Approval of Progress Payments / 143 12.2.6 Responding to Change Order Requests / 144 12.2.7 Requests for Information, Interpretations, and Clarifications / 144 12.3 A/E’s Role in Contractor Termination / 144 12.4 Initial Decision Maker (IDM) / 145 13 The Payment Process 147 13.1 Progress Payments / 147 13.1.1 Schedule of Values / 147 13.1.2 The Application for Payment / 148 13.1.3 Certifi cation of Payment / 148 13.2 Retainage / 149 13.2.1 Payment of Subcontractor’s Retainage / 150 13.2.2 Claims on Retainage / 150 13.3 Accord and Satisfaction / 150 13.3.1 Payment of an Accord by Check / 151 13.4 Joint Checks / 152 13.4.1 Joint Payee versus Alternative Payee / 152 13.5 Title Insurance / 152 13.6 Obligations of the Lender / 153 13.7 Evidence of Financing / 153 13.8 Prompt Payment Acts / 154 13.8.1 The Progress Payment Request / 154 13.8.2 Payment on Subcontracts / 154 13.9 The Owner’s Payment Obligation on Private Construction / 155 13.10 The False Claims Act / 155 13.10.1 Liability for False Claims / 156 13.10.2 Prosecution of False Claims / 156 13.10.3 State False Claims Act / 157 14 Changes to the Work 159 14.1 Contract Changes / 159 14.1.1 Construction Change Directives / 160 14.2 Pricing Change Orders / 160 14.2.1 Determination of Price by a Third Party / 161 14.2.2 Schedule Adjustments / 161 14.3 Constructive Changes / 161 14.3.1 Owner’s Direction or Improper Rejection of Work / 162 14.3.2 Notice Requirements for a Constructive Change / 162 14.3.3 Waiver of Notice Requirement / 163 14.3.4 Extra Work versus Additional Work / 163 14.4 Federal Government Contracts / 163 14.4.1 Equitable Adjustments / 164 14.4.2 Escrow of Bid Documents / 164 14.5 Authority to Issue Changes / 165 14.5.1 Apparent Authority and Ratification / 165 14.6 Duty to Perform the Changed Work / 166 14.7 Reservation of Rights / 166 14.8 Changes Clauses in Subcontracts / 168 14.9 Documentation of Costs / 168 14.10 Cardinal Changes / 169 14.10.1 The Contractor’s Options / 169 15 Differing Site Conditions 171 15.1 The Purpose of the Differing Site Conditions Clause / 171 15.2 Differing Site Conditions Claims / 172 15.2.1 Type I—Conditions Materially Different Than Indicated / 172 15.2.2 Type II—Conditions of an Unusual Nature / 173 15.3 Limitations on Claims for Differing Site Conditions / 174 15.3.1 Duty to Make a Site Inspection/Duty to Investigate / 175 15.3.2 Disclaimers / 175 15.3.3 Notice / 177 15.3.4 Waiver of Claims / 177 15.4 Variations in Estimated Quantities Clause / 177 15.5 Geotechnical Baseline Summary Report / 178 15.6 Hazardous Materials / 178 15.7 Tort and Breach-of-Contract Actions / 178 15.7.1 Misrepresentation (Intentional or Negligent) / 179 15.7.2 Owner’s Breach of Implied Warranty of Plans and Specs / 179 15.7.3 Failure to Disclose Superior Knowledge / 179 15.7.4 Mutual Mistake / 180 16 Termination of the Construction Contract 181 16.1 Unilateral Termination / 181 16.2 Contractual Termination Provisions / 182 16.3 Termination by the Contractor for Cause / 182 16.4 Termination by the Owner for Cause / 183 16.4.1 Notice and Opportunity to Cure / 183 16.5 Wrongful Termination / 184 16.6 The Role of the Performance Bond Surety / 185 16.7 Termination for Convenience / 186 17 Mechanic’s Liens 187 17.1 Purpose of a Mechanic’s Lien / 187 17.2 Procedures for Filing a Lien / 188 17.3 Lien Entitlement / 188 17.3.1 Liens for Services / 189 17.3.2 Liens for Materials / 189 17.4 Enforcement of the Lien / 190 17.4.1 Priorities / 190 17.4.2 Bonding Off / 191 17.5 Interests Subject to a Lien / 191 17.5.1 Subcontractor and Supplier Claims / 192 17.5.2 Amount of the Lien / 192 17.6 Lien Waivers / 193 17.6.1 No-Lien Contracts / 194 17.7 Rights of Owners and Third Parties / 194 17.8 The Effect of Bankruptcy on a Mechanic’s Lien / 194 17.9 Trust Fund Statutes / 195 17.10 Stop Notices / 195 17.11 Liens on Public Property / 195 18 Construction Insurance 197 18.1 Types of Insurance / 197 18.2 Commercial General Liability / 198 18.2.1 Bodily Injury and Property Damage / 198 18.2.2 Exclusions to Coverage / 199 18.2.3 Additional Insured Status / 200 18.3 Builder’s Risk Insurance / 200 18.4 Workers’ Compensation Insurance / 201 18.5 Professional Liability Insurance / 201 18.6 Wrap-up Insurance Programs / 202 18.7 Waiver of Subrogation / 202 19 Surety Bonds 205 19.1 Use of Surety Bonds in the Construction Industry / 205 19.1.1 Bid Guarantees / 206 19.1.2 Payment Bonds / 206 19.1.3 Performance Bonds / 208 19.2 Rights and Remedies of Sureties / 208 19.2.1 Indemnity Agreements / 209 19.2.2 Discharge of the Surety’s Obligations / 209 19.3 Bonding Requirements / 210 20 Liability for Defective Construction 211 20.1 Determining Liability / 211 20.2 Owner Claims against the Contractor / 212 20.2.1 Warranties / 212 20.2.2 Notice Requirements / 213 20.2.3 Tort Claims / 213 20.3 The Spearin Doctrine / 214 20.3.1 Application of the Spearin Doctrine / 214 20.3.2 Limitations on Spearin / 215 20.4 The A/E’s Liability for Defective Construction / 216 20.5 Affi rmative Defenses / 217 20.5.1 Statutes of Limitation / 217 20.5.2 Statutes of Repose / 218 21 Calculations of Damages 221 21.1 Compensatory Damages / 221 21.1.1 Consequential Damages / 222 21.2 Punitive Damages / 222 21.3 Duty to Mitigate Damages / 223 21.4 Owner’s Damages / 223 21.4.1 Owner’s Damages for Late Completion / 223 21.4.2 Economic Waste / 224 21.4.3 Betterment / 224 21.5 Contractor’s Damages / 226 21.5.1 Equipment Costs / 226 21.5.2 Home Offi ce Overhead / 227 21.5.3 Cost Increases for Labor and Materials / 228 21.5.4 Methods of Estimating Loss of Productivity / 228 21.6 Limitation of Liability / 230 21.6.1 Exculpatory Clauses / 230 21.6.2 Indemnifi cation Agreements / 231 21.6.3 Limitation-of-Liability Clauses / 232 21.6.4 Waiver of Consequential Damages / 233 21.7 Specifi c Performance / 234 21.8 Tort Claims / 234 21.9 Recovery of Damages in the Absence of an Express Contract / 235 21.9.1 Reliance Interest—Promissory Estoppel / 235 21.9.2 Implied-in-Fact Contracts—Quantum Meruit / 236 21.9.3 Restitution Interest—Unjust Enrichment / 236 21.9.4 Quantum Meruit versus Unjust Enrichment / 237 22 The Economic Loss Doctrine 239 22.1 Tort versus Contract Law / 239 22.1.1 Definition of Economic Loss / 240 22.1.2 Development of the Economic Loss Doctrine / 240 22.1.3 Basis for the Doctrine / 241 22.1.4 Public Policy Considerations / 241 22.1.5 Strict Application of the Doctrine / 242 22.1.6 Exceptions to the Economic Loss Doctrine / 242 22.2 Claims of Defective Construction Products / 243 22.2.1 Damage to Other Property / 244 22.3 Claims of Defective Construction Services / 244 22.3.1 Claims of Defective Design Professional Services / 245 22.4 Potentially Dangerous Products (Risk of Harm Exception) / 246 22.5 Negligent Misrepresentation / 247 22.5.1 Negligent Misrepresentation Claimants / 247 22.5.2 Tort versus Contract Claims for Negligent Misrepresentation / 248 23 Alternative Dispute Resolution 249 23.1 Arbitration / 249 23.1.1 Arbitration Clauses / 250 23.1.2 Arbitration Statutes / 250 23.1.3 Arbitration Organization Rules / 251 23.1.4 Prehearing Activities / 251 23.1.5 Selection of Arbitrators / 252 23.1.6 The Arbitration Hearing / 252 23.1.7 The Award / 252 23.1.8 Appealing the Award / 253 23.1.9 Costs of Arbitration / 254 23.1.10 Typical Schedule for Arbitration / 254 23.1.11 Joinder and Consolidation / 254 23.1.12 Waiver of Arbitration Rights / 255 23.1.13 Effect of Arbitration on the Surety / 256 23.2 Litigation versus Arbitration / 256 23.3 Mediation / 257 23.4 Other Types of Alternative Dispute Resolution / 258 23.4.1 Med/Arb / 258 23.4.2 Mini-Trial and Summary Proceedings / 258 23.4.3 Dispute Resolution Boards / 259 23.4.4 Standing Neutrals / 260 23.5 Dispute Prevention / 260 Appendix A: List of Abbreviations 261 Appendix B: Table of Cases 265 Appendix C: Understanding Case Citations 267 Glossary 271 Index 279
Gail S. Kelley is a Professional Engineer and LEED Accredited Professional as well as a licensed attorney in Maryland and the District of Columbia. Gail has an extensive background in design and construction having worked in construction management, structural design, and structural evaluation.
A clear, concise introduction to construction law for professionals Construction Law: An Introduction for Engineers, Architects, and Contractors offers a comprehensive review of the U.S. legal environment, focusing on the legal concepts and issues applicable to the design and construction industries. Topics covered include: Basic legal principles Project participants Project delivery systems Construction contracts The design process Procurement Pricing construction projects Subcontractors and suppliers Time for performance Construction scheduling Contract administration The payment process Changes to the work Differing site conditions Termination of the construction contract Mechanic's liens Construction insurance Surety bonds Liability for defective construction Calculations of damages The Economic Loss Doctrine Alternative dispute resolution This book serves as an excellent introduction to construction law for students as well as professionals in the construction industry.

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