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Conjugated Polymers for Biological and Biomedical Applications


Conjugated Polymers for Biological and Biomedical Applications


1. Aufl.

von: Bin Liu

133,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 23.02.2018
ISBN/EAN: 9783527342785
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 400

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Beschreibungen

This first book to specifically focus on applications of conjugated polymers in the fields of biology and biomedicine covers materials science, physical principles, and nanotechnology. The editor and authors, all pioneers and experts with extensive research experience in the field, firstly introduce the synthesis and optical properties of various conjugated polymers, highlighting how to make organic soluble polymers compatible with the aqueous environment. This is followed by the application of these materials in optical sensing and imaging as well as the emerging applications in image-guided therapy and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The result is a consolidated overview for polymer chemists, materials scientists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and bioengineers.
Preface xi 1 Strategies to Bring Conjugated Polymers into Aqueous Media 1Jie Liu and Bin Liu 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Synthesis of CPEs 2 1.2.1 Anionic CPEs 4 1.2.1.1 Sulfonated CPEs 4 1.2.1.2 Carboxylated CPEs 8 1.2.1.3 Phosphonated CPEs 13 1.2.2 Cationic CPEs 14 1.2.2.1 Ammonium CPEs 14 1.2.2.2 Pyridinium CPEs 20 1.2.2.3 Phosphonium CPEs 21 1.2.3 Zwitterionic CPEs 21 1.3 Neutral WSCPs 23 1.4 Fabrication of CPNPs 25 1.4.1 Reprecipitation 26 1.4.2 Miniemulsion 26 1.4.3 Nanoprecipitation 28 1.5 Conclusion 30 References 30 2 Direct Synthesis of Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles 35Sibel Ciftci and Alexander J. C. Kuehne 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Generation of CPNs 39 2.2.1 Postpolymerization Techniques 39 2.2.1.1 Nanoprecipitation 39 2.2.1.2 Miniemulsification 41 2.2.1.3 Microfluidics 42 2.2.1.4 Self?]Assembly 45 2.2.2 Direct Polymerization in Heterogeneous Systems 45 2.2.2.1 Emulsion Polymerization 46 2.2.2.2 Polymerization in Miniemulsion 48 2.2.2.3 Polymerization in Microemulsion 49 2.2.2.4 Dispersion Polymerization 50 2.3 Conclusion 53 References 53 3 Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles and Semiconducting Polymer Dots for Molecular Sensing and In Vivo and Cellular Imaging 59Xu Wu and Daniel T. Chiu 3.1 Introduction 59 3.2 Preparation, Characterization, and Functionalization 60 3.2.1 Preparation 60 3.2.2 Characterization 61 3.2.3 Functionalization 62 3.3 Molecular Sensing 65 3.3.1 Metal?]Ion Sensing 65 3.3.2 Oxygen and Reactive Oxygen Species Detection 66 3.3.3 pH and Temperature Monitoring 69 3.3.4 Sensing of Other Molecules 71 3.4 Cellular Imaging 74 3.4.1 Fluorescence Imaging 74 3.4.1.1 In Vitro Imaging 74 3.4.1.2 In Vivo Imaging 76 3.4.2 Photoacoustic Imaging 77 3.4.3 Multimodality Imaging 77 3.5 Conclusion 80 Acknowledgment 81 References 81 4 Conjugated Polymers for In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging 87Jun Li and Dan Ding 4.1 Introduction 87 4.2 In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Tumors 88 4.3 Stimuli?]Responsive Fluorescence Imaging 92 4.4 In Vivo Fluorescence Cell Tracking 95 4.5 Two?]Photon Excited Brain Vascular Imaging 98 4.6 Dual?]Modality Imaging of Tumors In Vivo 99 4.7 Other In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Applications 101 4.8 Conclusions and Perspectives 103 References 103 5 ?-Conjugated/Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles for Photoacoustic Imaging 111Chen Xie and Kanyi Pu 5.1 Introduction 111 5.2 Mechanism of PA Imaging 112 5.3 SPNs for PA Imaging 114 5.3.1 Preparation of SPNs 114 5.3.2 PA Imaging of Brain Vasculature 116 5.3.3 PA Imaging of Tumor 119 5.3.4 PA Imaging of Lymph Nodes 123 5.3.5 PA Imaging of ROS 125 5.3.6 Multimodal Imaging 125 5.4 Summary and Outlook 127 References 129 6 Conjugated Polymers for Two?]Photon Live Cell Imaging 135Shuang Li, Xiao?]Fang Jiang, and Qing?]Hua Xu 6.1 Introduction 135 6.2 Conjugated Polymers and CPNs as One?]Photon Excitation Imaging Contrast Agents 138 6.3 Conjugated Polymers as 2PEM Contrast Agents 140 6.4 Conjugated?]Polymer?]Based Nanoparticles (CPNs) as 2PEM Contrast Agents 146 6.4.1 CPNs Prepared from Hydrophobic Conjugated Polymers 146 6.4.2 CPNs Prepared from Conjugated Polyelectrolytes (CPEs) 150 6.4.3 CPNs Prepared by Hybrid Materials 152 6.5 Conclusions and Outlook 158 References 160 7 Water?]Soluble Conjugated Polymers for Sensing and Imaging Applications 171Xingfen Liu, Wei Huang, and Quli Fan 7.1 Introduction 171 7.2 Conjugated Polymers for Sensing 172 7.2.1 Sensing Based on FRET 172 7.2.1.1 One?]Step FRET 172 7.2.1.2 Two?]Step FRET 177 7.2.2 Sensing Based on Superquenching of CPs 178 7.2.2.1 Analytes?]Induced Quenching 178 7.2.2.2 Gold Nanoparticles?]Induced Superquenching 180 7.2.2.3 Graphene Oxide?]Induced Superquenching 183 7.2.3 Sensing Based on Conformation Conversion 183 7.2.4 Sensing Based on Aggregation of Conjugated Polymers 185 7.3 Imaging of Conjugated Polymers 186 7.3.1 Single?]Modal Imaging 188 7.3.1.1 Fluorescence Imaging 188 7.3.1.2 Far?]Red and NIR Imaging 190 7.3.1.3 Two?]Photon Imaging 193 7.3.1.4 Multicolor Imaging 196 7.3.2 MultiModal Imaging 201 7.3.2.1 MRI/Fluorescence Imaging 201 7.3.2.2 Fluorescence/Dark?]Field Imaging 206 7.3.2.3 MRI/Photoacoustic Imaging 209 7.4 Challenges and Outlook 209 References 210 8 Conjugated Polymers for Gene Delivery 215Joong Ho Moon and Kenry 8.1 Introduction 215 8.2 Fundamental Properties of Conjugated Polymers 216 8.3 Intracellular Targeting, Cytotoxicity, and Biodegradability of Conjugated Polymers 218 8.4 Plasmid DNA (pDNA) Delivery 222 8.5 Small Interfering RNA (siRNA) Delivery 226 8.6 Conclusions and Outlook 232 References 234 9 Conductive Polymer?]Based Functional Structures for Neural Therapeutic Applications 243Kenry and Bin Liu 9.1 Introduction 243 9.2 Conductive Polymer?]Based Functional Structures 244 9.2.1 Conductive Polymers 244 9.2.2 Conductive Polymer?]Based Hydrogels 249 9.2.3 Conductive Polymer?]Based Nanofibers 250 9.3 Synthesis and Functionalization of Conductive Polymer?]Based Functional Structures 251 9.3.1 Synthesis and Doping of Conductive Polymers 251 9.3.2 Fabrication of Electroconductive Hydrogels 252 9.3.3 Electrospinning of Conductive Polymer?]Based Nanofibers 253 9.3.4 Functionalization and Modification of Conductive Polymer?]Based Functional Structures 254 9.4 Applications of Conductive Polymer?]Based Functional Structures for Neural Therapies 255 9.4.1 Electrostimulated Drug Delivery 255 9.4.2 Neural Cell and Tissue Scaffolds for Neural Regeneration 257 9.4.3 Implantable Biosensors and Neural Prostheses 258 9.5 Summary and Outlook 260 References 261 10 Conjugated Polymers for Photodynamic Therapy 269Thangaraj Senthilkumar and Shu Wang 10.1 Introduction 269 10.1.1 Photodynamic Therapy – Concept and History 269 10.1.2 Outline of the PDT Process 269 10.1.3 Role of Conjugated Polymers in PDT 271 10.1.4 Photochemistry Behind the PDT Process 271 10.1.5 Design Aspects of Effective PDT 272 10.2 Conjugated Polymers as Photosensitizers 274 10.2.1 Far?]Red/Near?]IR Emitting CP as Photosensitizers 274 10.2.2 CP as Energy Transfer Systems to Photosensitizing Dyes 274 10.2.3 Hybrid Photosensitizers based on CP 277 10.3 Applications of CP?]Based Photodynamic Therapy 277 10.3.1 Antimicroorganism Activity 277 10.3.2 Antitumor Therapy 285 10.4 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 291 References 291 11 Conjugated Polymers for Near?]Infrared Photothermal Therapy of Cancer 295Ligeng Xu, Xuejiao Song, and Zhuang Liu 11.1 Introduction 295 11.2 Conjugated Polymers for Cancer Photothermal Therapy 295 11.2.1 Polyaniline (PANI) Nanoparticles 296 11.2.2 Polypyrrole (PPy) Nanoparticles 297 11.2.3 PEDOT:PSS–PEG Nanoparticles 298 11.2.4 Donor–Acceptor (D–A) Conjugated Polymers 299 11.3 Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy 301 11.4 Conjugated Polymers for Combination Cancer Treatment 306 11.4.1 Combined Photodynamic and Photothermal Therapy 307 11.4.2 Combined Photothermal Chemotherapy 309 11.5 Outlook and Perspectives 312 References 316 12 Conjugated Polymers for Disease Diagnosis and Theranostics Medicine 321Akhtar Hussain Malik, Sameer Hussain, Sayan Roy Chowdhury, and Parameswar Krishnan Iyer 12.1 Introduction 321 12.2 Disease Diagnostics via Conjugated Polymers 322 12.2.1 Detection of Pathogens (E. coli, C. albicans, B. subtilis) 322 12.2.2 Detection of Cancer Biomarkers (DNA Methylation, miRNAs, Hyaluronidase, Spermine) 327 12.2.2.1 DNA Methylation 329 12.2.2.2 MicroRNAs (miRNA) Detection 333 12.2.2.3 Hyaluronidase (HAase) Detection 335 12.2.2.4 Spermine Detection 335 12.2.3 Detection of Other Important Biomarkers (Acid Phosphatase, Bilirubin) 337 12.2.3.1 Acid Phosphatase (ACP) Detection 337 12.2.3.2 Bilirubin Detection 338 12.3 Conjugated Polymers for Cancer Theranostics 340 12.3.1 Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) 340 12.3.2 Photothermal Therapy (PTT) 342 12.4 Studying Neurodegenerative Disorders 345 12.4.1 Diagnostics via Conjugated Polymers 345 12.4.2 Therapeutic Strategies to Prevent Neurodegenerative Disorders 351 References 355 13 Polymer?]Grafted Conjugated Polymers as Functional Biointerfaces 359Alissa J. Hackett, Lisa T. Strover, Paul Baek, Jenny Malmström, and Jadranka Travas?]Sejdic 13.1 Introduction 359 13.2 Methods of Functionalizing CPs 361 13.2.1 Biodopants 361 13.2.2 Biomolecule Attachment 361 13.2.3 Copolymers and Polymer Blends 361 13.3 CP?]Based Polymer Brushes as Biointerfaces: Rationale and Applications 362 13.3.1 Antifouling 362 13.3.2 Biosensing 365 13.3.3 Tissue Engineering 366 13.3.4 Stimuli?]Responsive Materials 367 13.3.5 Emerging Bioelectronics Materials Based on Grafted CPs 372 13.4 Synthesis of CP?]Based Graft Copolymer Brushes 372 13.4.1 Grafted CPs: Synthesis by “Grafting Through” Approach 374 13.4.2 Grafted CPs: Synthesis by “Grafting To” Approach 377 13.4.3 Grafted CPs: Synthesis by “Grafting From” Approach 378 13.5 Conclusions and Outlook 385 References 387 Index 403
Dr. Bin Liu is the Provost's Chair Professor and Head of Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore. She received her PhD degree from NUS and started her independent academic career after a postdoctoral training at the University of California, Santa Barbara, USA. She has authored and co-authored over 350 scientific publications. Named among the World's Most Influential Minds and the Top 1% Highly Cited Researchers in Materials Science by Thomson Reuters and Clarivate Analytics from 2014 to 2017, Dr. Liu specializes in bringing organic soluble materials into aqueous media, with a focus on the exploration of their unique applications in biomedical research, environmental monitoring and electronic devices. Dr. Liu is the recipient of multiple prestigious awards, including the National Science and Technology Young Scientist Award, L'Oreal Women in Science National Fellowship, Asia Rising Star, Singapore National Institute of Chemistry-BASF Materials Award, Singapore National Research Foundation lnvestigatorship, Elsevier Materials in Society Lectureship, NUS Provost's Chair Professorship and the President's Technology Award. She was also recently elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry, Fellow of Singapore Academy of Engineering and Asia-Pacific Academy of Materials, in addition to multiple invitations to serve on the editorial boards of 15 international refereed journals. Besides her academic endeavors, Dr. Liu is highly active in technopreneurship. She holds 28 patents, of which 15 have been licensed to companies across the US, UK and Asia, and co-founded a start-up company Luminicell to commercialize her bioprobe technology based on fluorogens with aggregation-induced emission feature.
This first book to specifically focus on the applications of conjugated polymers in the fields of biology and biomedicine covers a wide range of scientific areas, including materials science, organic chemistry, biology, and nanotechnology. The editor and authors, all pioneers and experts with extensive research experience in the field, firstly introduce the synthesis and optical properties of various conjugated polymers, highlighting how to make organic polymers soluble and compatible with the aqueous environment. This is followed by the applications of these materials in optical sensing and imaging as well as the emerging applications in image-guided therapy and in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The result is a consolidated overview for polymer chemists, materials scientists, biochemists, biotechnologists, and bioengineers.

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