Details

Compiler Construction Using Java, JavaCC, and Yacc


Compiler Construction Using Java, JavaCC, and Yacc


1. Aufl.

von: Anthony J. Dos Reis

95,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-IEEE Computer Society Press
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 28.02.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9781118112779
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 664

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

Broad in scope, involving theory, the application of that theory, and programming technology, compiler construction is a moving target, with constant advances in compiler technology taking place. Today, a renewed focus on do-it-yourself programming makes a quality textbook on compilers, that both students and instructors will enjoy using, of even more vital importance. This book covers every topic essential to learning compilers from the ground up and is accompanied by a powerful and flexible software package for evaluating projects, as well as several tutorials, well-defined projects, and test cases.
Preface xv Chapter 1. Strings, Languages, and Compilers 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Basic Language Concepts 1 1.3 Basic Compiler Concepts 3 1.4 Basic Set Theory 4 1.5 Null String 6 1.6 Concatenation 7 1.7 Exponent Notation 7 1.8 Star Operator 8 1.9 Concatenation of Sets of Strings 9 1.10 Plus Operator 11 1.11 Question Mark Operator 11 1.12 Shorthand Notation for a Set Containing a Single String 12 1.13 Operator Precedence 12 1.14 Regular Expressions 13 1.15 Limitations of Regular Expressions 15 Problems 16 Chapter 2. Context-Free Grammars, Part 1 19 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 What is a Context-Free Grammar? 20 2.3 Derivations Using a Context-Free Grammar 21 2.4 Language Defined by a Context-Free Grammar 23 2.5 Different Ways of Representing Context-Free Grammars 25 2.6 Some Simple Grammars 26 2.7 Techniques for Generating Languages with Context-Free Grammars 29 2.8 Regular and Right Linear Grammars 35 2.9 Counting with Regular Grammars 37 2.0 Grammars for Lists 39 2.10 An Important Language that is Not Context Free 44 Problems 45 Chapter 3. Context-Free Grammars, Part 2 49 3.1 Introduction 49 3.2 Parse Trees 49 3.3 Leftmost and Rightmost Derivations 51 3.4 Substitution 52 3.5 Ambiguous Grammars 54 3.6 Determining Nullable Nonterminals 59 3.7 Eliminating Lambda Productions 60 3.8 Eliminating Unit Productions 64 3.9 Eliminating Useless Nonterminals 66 3.10 Recursion Conversions 71 3.11 Adding the Null String to a Language 76 Problems 77 Chapter 4. Context-Free Grammars, Part 3 83 4.1 Introduction 83 4.2 Grammars for Arithmetic Expressions 83 4.3 Specifying Associativity and Precedence in Grammars 90 4.4 Backus-Naur Form 92 4.5 Syntax Diagrams 94 4.6 Abstract Syntax Trees and Three-Address Code 96 4.7 Noncontracting Grammars 97 4.8 Essentially Noncontracting Grammars 97 4.9 Converting a Context-Free Grammar to an Essentially Noncontracting Grammar 98 4.10 Pumping Property of Context-Free Languages 101 Problems 104 Chapter 5. Chomsky’s Hierarchy 107 5.1 Introduction 107 5.2 Context-Sensitive Productions 107 5.3 Context-Sensitive Grammars 110 5.4 Unrestricted Grammars 111 Problems 112 Chapter 6. Top-Down Parsing 115 6.1 Introduction 115 6.2 Top-Down Construction of a Parse Tree 115 6.3 Parses that Fail 117 6.4 A Bad Grammar for Top-Down Parsing 118 6.5 Deterministic Parses 119 6.6 A Parser that Uses a Stack 120 6.7 Table Representation of a Stack Parser 124 6.8 Handling Productions with Nonleading Terminal 126 6.9 Writing a Stack Parser in Java 127 Problems 134 Chapter 7. LL(1) Grammars 137 7.1 Introduction 137 7.2 FIRST Set of the Right Side of a Production 137 7.3 Determining Operation Sequences 140 7.4 Determining Selection Sets of Lambda Productions 142 7.5 Whatever-Follows-Left-Follows-Rightmost Rule 145 7.6 Selection Sets for Productions with Nullable Right Sides 147 7.7 Selection Sets Containing End-of-Input Symbol 149 7.8 A Stack Parser for a Grammar with Lambda Productions 152 7.9 Converting a Non-LL(1) Grammar to an LL(1) Grammar 153 7.10 Parsing with an Ambiguous Grammar 160 7.11 Computing FIRST and FOLLOW Sets 163 Problem 165 Chapter 8. Table-Driven Stack Parser 171 8.1 Introduction 171 8.2 Unifying the Operations of a Stack Parser 172 8.3 Implementing a Table-Driven Stack Parser 175 8.4 Improving Our Table-Driven Stack Parser 180 8.5 Parsers that are Not Deterministic—A Digression on Theory 181 Problems 183 Chapter 9. Recursive-Descent Parsing 185 9.1 Introduction 185 9.2 Simple Recursive-Descent Parser 185 9.3 Handling Lambda Productions 192 9.4 A Common Error 197 9.5 Java Code for Productions 198 9.6 Left Factoring in a Recursive-Descent Parser 199 9.7 Eliminating Tail Recursion 204 9.8 Translating the Star, Plus, and Question Mark Operators 108 9.9 Doing Things Backward 210 Problems 211 Chapter 10. Recursive-Descent Translation 215 10.1 Introduction 215 10.2 A Simple Translation Grammar 215 10.3 Converting a Translation Grammar to Java Code 217 10.4 Specifications for a Translation Grammar 218 10.5 Passing Information During a Parse 231 10.6 L-Attributed Grammars 236 10.7 New Token Manager 238 10.8 Solving the Token Lookahead Problem 241 10.9 Code for the New Token Manager 241 10.10 Translation Grammar for Prefix-Expression Compiler 253 10.11 An Interesting Use of Recursion 257 Problems 261 Chapter 11. Assembly Language 265 11.1 Introduction 265 11.2 Structure of the J1 Computer 265 11.3 Machine Language Instructions 266 11.4 Assembly Language Instructions 268 11.5 Pushing Characters 269 11.6 aout Instruction 270 11.7 Using Labels 270 11.8 Using the Assembler 272 11.9 stav Instruction 275 11.10 Compiling and Assignment Statement 277 11.11 Compiling print and println 280 11.12 Outputting Strings 281 11.13 Inputting Decimal Numbers 283 11.14 Entry Directive 284 11.15 More Assembly Language 285 Problems 285 Chapter 12. S1—A Simple Compiler 289 12.1 Introduction 289 12.2 The Source Language 289 12.3 Grammar for Source Language 289 12.4 The Target Language 291 12.5 Symbol Table 292 12.6 Code Generator 293 12.7 Token Class 293 12.8 Writing the Translation Grammar 294 12.9 Implementing the S1 Compiler 299 12.10 Trying Out S1 315 12.11 Advice on Extending the S1 Compiler 318 12.12 Specifications for S2 320 Problems 324 Chapter 13. JavaCC 331 13.1 Introduction 331 13.2 JavaCC Extended Regular Expressions 333 13.3 JavaCC Input File 337 13.4 Specifying Actions for Regular Expressions 344 13.5 JavaCC Input File for S1j 348 13.6 Files Produced by JavaCC 355 13.7 Using the Star and Plus Operators 359 13.8 Choice Points and the Lookahead Directive 362 13.9 JavaCC’s Choice Algorithm 367 13.10 Syntactic and Semantic Lookahead 371 13.11 Using JavaCC to Create a Token Manager Only 372 13.12 Using the Token Chain 373 13.13 Suppressing Warning Messages 377 Problems 387 Chapter 14. Building on S2 383 14.1 Introduction 383 14.2 Extending println and print 383 14.3 Cascaded Assignment Statement 388 14.4 Unary Plus and Minus 313 14.5 readint Statement 393 14.6 Controlling the Token Trace from the Command Line 395 14.7 Specifications for S3 396 Problems 396 Chapter 15. Compiling Control Structures 399 15.1 Introduction 399 15.2 while Statement 399 15.3 if Statement 403 15.4 do-while Statement 407 15.5 Range Checking of Numerical Constants 408 15.6 Handling Backslash-Quote in a String 410 15.7 Handling Backslash-Quote with JavaCC 411 15.8 Universal Blocks in JavaCC 416 15.9 Handling Strings that Span Lines 418 15.10 Handling Strings that Span Lines Using JavaCC 419 15.11 Special_Token Block in JavaCC 422 15.12 Error Recovery 424 15.13 Error Recovery in JavaCC 429 15.14 Specifications for S4 430 Problems 431 Chapter 16. Compiling Programs in Functional Form 435 16.1 Introduction 435 16.2 Separate Assembly and Linking 435 16.3 Calling and Returning from Functions 439 16.4 Source Language for S5 443 16.5 Symbol Table for S5 445 16.6 Code Generator for S5 446 16.7 Translation Grammar for S5 447 16.8 Linking with a Library 457 16.9 Specifications for S5 458 16.10 Extending S5 458 Problems 461 Chapter 17. Finite Automata 465 17.1 Introduction 465 17.2 Deterministic Finite Automata 466 17.3 Converting a DFA to a Regular Expression 468 17.4 Java Code for a DFA 468 17.5 Nondeterministic Finite Automata 474 17.6 Using an NFA as an Algorithm 476 17.7 Converting an NFA to a DFA with the Subset Algorithm 478 17.8 Converting a DFA to a Regular Grammar 479 17.9 Converting a Regular Grammar to an NFA 482 17.10 Converting a Regular Expressions to an NFA 484 17.11 Finding the Minimal DFA 488 17.12 Pumping Property of Regular Languages 493 Problems 495 Chapter 18. Capstone Project: Implementing Grep Using Compiler Technology 499 18.1 Introduction 499 18.2 Regular Expressions for Our GREP Program 501 18.3 Token Manager for Regular Expression 501 18.4 Grammar for Regular Expressions 503 18.5 Target Language for Our Regular Expression Compiler 503 18.6 Using an NFA for Pattern Matching 508 Problems 513 Chapter 19. Compiling to a Register-Oriented Architecture 515 19.1 Introduction 515 19.2 Using the Register Instruction Set 516 19.3 Modifications to the Symbol Table for R1 517 19.4 Parser and Code Generator for R1 518 Problems 526 Chapter 20. Optimization 529 20.1 Introduction 529 20.2 Using the 1dc Instruction 531 20.3 Reusing Temporary Variables 432 20.4 Constant Folding 535 20.5 Register Allocation 537 20.6 Peephole Optimization 540 Problems 543 Chapter 21. Interpreters 547 21.1 Introduction 547 20.2 Converting S1 to 11 549 20.3 Interpreting Statements that Transfer Control 552 20.4 Implementing the Compiler-Interpreter C11 553 20.5 Advantages of Interpreters 558 Problems 559 Chapter 22. Bottom-Up Parsing 561 22.1 Introduction 561 22.2 Principles of Bottom-Up Parsing 561 22.3 Parsing with Right- versus Left-Recursive Grammars 565 22.4 Bottom-up Parsing with an Ambiguous Grammar 566 22.5 Do-Not Reduce Rule 569 22.6 SLR(1) Parsing 570 22.7 Shift/Reduce Conflicts 577 22.8 Reduce/Reduce Conflicts 579 22.9 LR(1) Parsing 579 Problems 584 Chapter 23. yacc 587 23.1 Introduction 587 23.2 yacc Input and Output Files 587 23.3 A Simple yacc-Generated Parser 588 23.4 Passing Values Using the Value Stack 596 23.5 Using yacc With an Ambiguous Grammar 602 23.6 Passing Values down the Parse Tree 604 23.7 Implementing Sly 606 23.8 jflex 612 Problems 618 Appendix A. Stack Instruction Set 621 Appendix B. Register Instruction Set 625 References 629 Index 631
"Compiler Construction Using Java, JavaCC, and Yacc covers every topic essential to learning compilers from the ground up and is accompanied by a powerful and flexible software package for evaluating projects, as well as several tutorials, well-defined projects, and test cases." (Ulitzer, 5 December 2011)
Anthony J. Dos Reis is Associate Professor of Computer Science at the State University of New York at New Paltz. Before becoming a professor, Dr. Dos Reis worked at IBM as a systems programmer, creating IBM operating systems and compilers. His teaching interests include computer engineering, program translation, Java, and formal languages.
A student-friendly, course-friendly guide to compiler theory, applications, and programming technology Compiler construction is a tricky subject, involving theory, the application of that theory, and programming technology. Virtually every day, advances in computer technology propel advances in compiler technology. Compiler Construction Using Java, JavaCC, and Yacc covers every topic essential to learning compilers from the ground up and is accompanied by a powerful and flexible software package for evaluating projects as well as several tutorials, well-defined projects, and test cases. While the coverage of JavaCC is entirely optional, this book provides the only comprehensive introduction to the topic currently available. Far easier to read and understand than any other compiler guide, this book sets a new standard for learning this invaluable skill. It provides: Strong coverage of formal languages, including context-sensitive and unrestricted languages as well as regular and context-free languages A clear exposition of compiler design and implementation theory Numerous well-defined projects, using source language with six levels of complexity A complete teaching support software package that evaluates compiler projects for correctness, run time, and size of code, and runs on multiple platforms Immediate feedback for students on their projects Compiler Construction Using JavaTM, JavaCC, and Yacc provides substantial support for each project, many of which are incremental enhancements of previous projects. The goals at each new level are challenging but achievable and can be reached in several different ways, for example, by writing a compiler or interpreter by hand, with JavaCC, or with Yacc.

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