Details

Chitosan


Chitosan

Derivatives, Composites and Applications
1. Aufl.

von: Shakeel Ahmed, Saiqa Ikram

194,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Scrivener
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 04.08.2017
ISBN/EAN: 9781119364818
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 516

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Beschreibungen

This book delves deeply in to the preparation, characterization and multiple applications of chitin and chitosan. The 17 chapters written by leading experts is an excellent reference source and state-of-the-art review for researchers and scientists using chitosan or biopolymers in their respective areas. This book is divided into following sections:• Production and derivatives of chitosan• Chitosan in the textile and food industries• Chitosan in biomedical applications• Chitosan in agriculture and water treatment The book is practical as readers will be able to see descriptions of chitosan production methods as well as techniques that can be used to estimate and modify their physical and chemical properties. It provides a full description not only of the traditional and recent developments in the applications of chitosan in the fields of biotechnology, environmental studies, food, medicine, water treatments, drug delivery, but it includes all of the  therapeutically usages as well.
Preface xvii Section I Production and Derivatives of Chitosan 1 Chitin and Chitosan: History, Composition, and Properties 3Annu, Shakeel Ahmed and Saiqa Ikram 1.1 Chitin 4 1.2 Chitosan 11 1.3 Conclusion  21 References  21 2 Nitrogenated Polysaccharides – Chitin and Chitosan, Characterization and Application 25Michael  Ioelovich 2.1 Introduction 26 2.2 Extraction of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides from Natural Sources 27 2.3 Research Methods of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 28 2.4 Characterization of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 47 2.5 Properties of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 54 2.6 Applications 58 2.7 Conclusion 60 References 61 3 Enzymes for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide and Determination of Activities of Enzymes Using Chitinous Substrates 71Sai Pyae Sone Aung, Wint Le Nu, Khin Chaw Win, Htun Inzali, Hla Ngwe and Nitar Nwe 3.1 Introduction 72 3.2 Fermentation Methods for Production of Enzymes 74 3.3 Methods for Purification of Enzymes 74 3.4 Storage Conditions of Enzyme 78 3.5 Commercial Enzymes 78 3.6 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials 78 3.7 Conclusion 85 Acknowledgement 85 References 85 4 Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Green Technology and Applications of Their Composite Materials 89Wint Le Nu, Khin Chaw Win, Sai Pyae Sone Aung, Htun Inzali, Tetsuya Furuike, Hiroshi Tamura and Nitar Nwe 4.1 Introduction 90 4.2 Microorganisms for Production of Chitin and Chitosan Using Green Technology 92 4.3 Production of Chitin Using Microorganisms 93 4.4 Production of Chitosan from Chitin Using Chitin Deacetylase from Microorganisms 94 4.5 Production of Crude Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Fermentation Technology 98 4.6 Applications of Chitin, Chitosan, Chitooligosaccharides and Their Composite Materials 101 4.7 Conclusion 102 Acknowledgement 107 References 107 5 Chitosan and Its Derivatives: Overlook of Commercial Application in Diverse Field 115Tanvir Arfin 5.1 History 115 5.2 Synthesis of Chitosan 116 5.3 General Properties 117 5.4 Biological Properties 117 5.5 Physicochemical Aspects 118 5.6 Molecular Weight 118 5.7 Stability 118 5.8 Fabrication 119 5.9 Self-Assembly 120 5.10 Strategies Self-Assembly 121 5.11 Chief Significance 122 5.12 Various Forms 122 5.13 Chemical Modification 122 5.14 Technologic Features for Medicinal Utilization 122 5.15 Synthetic Procedure of Chitosan Nanoparticles 123 5.16 Modified Chitosan 123 5.17 Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMC) 123 5.18 Michael Reaction 124 5.19 Antioxidant 124 5.20 Antibacterial Properties 126 5.21 Antimicrobial Activity 126 5.22 Antiviral Activity 129 5.23 Biological Adhesive 129 5.24 Bonding Purposes 130 5.25 Biodegradation 130 5.26 Parameter Moving Transfection Competence 131 5.27 Conjugation 131 5.28 Functionalization of Chitosan 131 5.29 Schiff ’s Base Formation 131 5.30 Reductive Amination 134 5.31 Chitosan–Proteins Interaction 134 5.32 Absorption Enhancer 135 5.33 Chitosan–Starch Blends 135 5.34 Application in Various Fields 135 5.35 Conclusion 146 References 146 6 Chitin and Chitosan-Complexes and Their Applications 151 6.1 Introduction 152 6.2 Synthesis of Chitosan from Chitin 153 6.3 Different Properties of Chitosan 154 6.4 Polyelectrolyte Complexes of Chitosan 156 6.5 Complexes of Polyelectrolyte between Chitosan and Naturally Occurring Polymers 157 6.6 Various Useful and Important Applications of Chitosan 159 6.7 Conclusion 162 Acknowledgement 162 References 162 7 Enzymes from Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide 167 7.1 Introduction 168 7.2 Enzymes for Production of Chitin/Chitosan, and CTO 169 7.3 Enzyme and DNA Technology for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and CTO 169 7.4 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials 172 7.5 Conclusion 176 References 179 Section II Chitosan in Textile and Food Industry 8 Chitosan Applications for the Food Industry 185 8.1 Introduction 185 8.2 Biological Activities of Chitosan and Its Derivatives 187 8.3 Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Food Applications 193 8.4 Nutritional Aspects of Chitin and Chitosan 213 8.5 Preparation of Chitin and Chitosan Oligomers and Their Applications in the Food Industry as Health Supplements 215 8.6 Future Trends: Chitosan-Based Nanotechnology for Food Applications 217 8.7 Conclusion 217 Acknowledgements 218 References 218 9 Chitosan: Sustainable and Environment Friendly Resource for Textile Industry 233 9.1 Introduction 233 9.2 Chitosan and Chitosan Resources 234 9.3 Chitosan Treatment of Textiles 236 9.4 Textile Functionalities Achieved 240 9.5 Effluent Treatment Applications 245 9.6 Future Perspectives and Conclusion 246 References 247 Section III Chitosan in Biomedical Applications 10 Perspectives of Chitin- and Chitosan-based Scaffolds Dressing in Regenerative Medicine 255 10.1 Introduction 256 10.2 Scaffold Characteristics 258 10.3 Fabrication Techniques 260 10.4 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan as Regenerative Medicine 261 10.5 Conclusion 264 References 265 11 Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds 271 11.1 Introduction 272 11.2 Scaffold Components 274 11.3 Scaffold Requirements 274 11.4 Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds Fabrication Techniques 276 11.5 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan for Regeneration of Various Tissues 281 11.6 Chitin – and CS-Based Scaffolds for Drug and Growth Factors Delivery 293 11.7 Chitin – and CS-Based Scaffolds/Dressings in Market 294 11.8 Conclusions 294 11.9 Future perspectives 295 Abbreviations 295 References 300 12 Nanopolymer Chitosan in Cancer and Alzheimer Biomedical Application 311 12.1 Introduction 311 12.2 Chitosan Applications in Cancer 317 12.3 Chitosan Applications in Alzheimer’s 335 12.4 Conclusion 348 References 348 13 Biomedical Significance of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites 361 13.1 Introduction 362 13.2 Biomedical Applications 363 13.3 Conclusion 377 References 378 14 Potential Biomedical Applications of Chitosan – and Chitosan-Based  Nanomaterials 385 14.1 Introduction 386 14.2 Production of Chitin and Chitosan 387 14.3 Bioactivities of Chitin and Chitosan 388 14.4 Biomedical Application of Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials 394 14.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 400 Acknowledgement 401 References 401 Section IV Chitosan in Agriculture and Water treatment 15 Practical and Plausible Implications of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites in Agriculture 411 15.1 Introduction 412 15.2 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan Nanocomposite in Agriculture 413 15.3 Conclusion 423 References 423 16 Scope of Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibrous Web for Its Potential Application in Water Filtration 431 16.1 Introduction 431 16.2 Chitosan as an Efficient Material for Water Purification/ Disinfection 433 16.3 Electrospinning Process 438 16.4 Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers Embedded with Silver Nanoparticles for Filtration of Water Contaminated with Bacteria 442 16.5 Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites for Water Filtration 446 16.6 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives 448 References 449 17 Application of Chitin/Chitosan and Its Derivatives as Adsorbents, Coagulants, and Flocculants 453 17.1 Introduction 454 17.2 Chitin and Chitosan 455 17.3 Properties of Chitin and Chitosan 455 17.4 Modification of Chitin and Chitosan 456 17.5 Application of Natural Polymers in Wastewater Treatment as Promising Adsorbents 461 17.6 Chitin and Chitosan as a New Type of Polymer Coagulant/Flocculants 465 17.7 Future Directions for Research 474 17.8 Conclusion 475 Acknowledgments 475 References 475

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von: Shakeel Ahmed, Saiqa Ikram
PDF ebook
194,99 €