Details

Bioinorganic Chemistry -- Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life


Bioinorganic Chemistry -- Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life

An Introduction and Guide
Inorganic Chemistry: A Textbook Series 2. Aufl.

von: Wolfgang Kaim, Brigitte Schwederski, Axel Klein

50,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 01.08.2013
ISBN/EAN: 9781118659267
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 456

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

The field of Bioinorganic Chemistry has grown significantly in recent years; now one of the major sub-disciplines of Inorganic Chemistry, it has also pervaded other areas of the life sciences due to its highly interdisciplinary nature. Bioinorganic Chemistry: Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life, Second Edition provides a detailed introduction to the role of inorganic elements in biology, taking a systematic element-by-element approach to the topic. The second edition of this classic text has been fully revised and updated to include new structure information, emerging developments in the field, and an increased focus on medical applications of inorganic compounds. New topics have been added including materials aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, elemental cycles, bioorganometallic chemistry, medical imaging and therapeutic advances. Topics covered include: Metals at the center of photosynthesis Uptake, transport, and storage of essential elements Catalysis through hemoproteins Biological functions of molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and chromium Function and transport of alkaline and alkaline earth metal cations Biomineralization Biological functions of the non-metallic inorganic elements Bioinorganic chemistry of toxic metals Biochemical behavior of radionuclides and medical imaging using inorganic compounds Chemotherapy involving non-essential elements  This full color text provides a concise and comprehensive review of bioinorganic chemistry for advanced students of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, medicine and environmental science.
Preface to the Second Edition xi Preface to the First Edition xiii 1 Historical Background, Current Relevance and Perspectives 1 References 6 2 Some General Principles 7 2.1 Occurrence and Availability of Inorganic Elements in Organisms 7 Insertion: The Chelate Effect 14 Insertion: “Hard” and “Soft” Coordination Centers 14 2.2 Biological Functions of Inorganic Elements 14 2.3 Biological Ligands for Metal Ions 16 2.3.1 Coordination by Proteins: Comments on Enzymatic Catalysis 17 Insertion: The “Entatic State” in Enzymatic Catalysis 20 2.3.2 Tetrapyrrole Ligands and Other Macrocycles 22 Insertion: Electron Spin States in Transition Metal Ions 28 2.3.3 Nucleobases, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids (RNA, DNA) as Ligands 31 Insertion: Secondary Bonding 32 2.4 Relevance of Model Compounds 34 References 34 3 Cobalamins, Including Vitamin and Coenzyme B12 37 3.1 History and Structural Characterization 37 Insertion: Bioorganometallics I [1] 38 3.2 General Reactions of Alkylcobalamins 41 3.2.1 One-electron Reduction and Oxidation 41 3.2.2 Co–C Bond Cleavage 42 Insertion: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance I 43 3.3 Enzyme Functions of Cobalamins 45 3.3.1 Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent Isomerases 45 Insertion: Organic Redox Coenzymes 48 3.3.2 Alkylation Reactions of Methylcobalamin (MeCbl)-dependent Alkyl Transferases 51 3.4 Model Systems and the Enzymatic Activation of the Co–C Bond 52 References 53 4 Metals at the Center of Photosynthesis: Magnesium and Manganese 57 4.1 Volume and Efficiency of Photosynthesis 57 4.2 Primary Processes in Photosynthesis 59 4.2.1 Light Absorption (Energy Acquisition) 59 4.2.2 Exciton Transport (Directed Energy Transfer) 59 4.2.3 Charge Separation and Electron Transport 62 Insertion: Structure Determination by X-ray Diffraction 62 4.3 Manganese-catalyzed Oxidation of Water to O2 68 Insertion: Spin–Spin Coupling 73 References 75 5 The Dioxygen Molecule, O2: Uptake, Transport and Storage of an Inorganic Natural Product 77 5.1 Molecular and Chemical Properties of Dioxygen, O2 77 5.2 Oxygen Transport and Storage through Hemoglobin and Myoglobin 82 5.3 Alternative Oxygen Transport in Some Lower Animals: Hemerythrin and Hemocyanin 92 5.3.1 Magnetism 92 5.3.2 Light Absorption 93 5.3.3 Vibrational Spectroscopy 93 Insertion: Resonance Raman Spectroscopy 93 5.3.4 M¨ossbauer Spectroscopy 94 Insertion: M¨ossbauer Spectroscopy 94 5.3.5 Structure 95 5.4 Conclusion 96 References 96 6 Catalysis through Hemoproteins: Electron Transfer, Oxygen Activation and Metabolism of Inorganic Intermediates 99 6.1 Cytochromes 101 6.2 Cytochrome P-450: Oxygen Transfer from O2 to Nonactivated Substrates 103 6.3 Peroxidases: Detoxification and Utilization of Doubly Reduced Dioxygen 108 6.4 Controlling the Reaction Mechanism of the Oxyheme Group: Generation and Function of Organic Free Radicals 110 6.5 Hemoproteins in the Catalytic Transformation of Partially Reduced Nitrogen and Sulfur Compounds 112 Insertion: Gasotransmitters 113 References 114 7 Iron–Sulfur and Other Non-heme Iron Proteins 117 7.1 Biological Relevance of the Element Combination Iron–Sulfur 117 Insertion: Extremophiles and Bioinorganic Chemistry 118 7.2 Rubredoxins 122 7.3 [2Fe-2S] Centers 122 7.4 Polynuclear Fe/S Clusters: Relevance of the Protein Environment and Catalytic Activity 123 7.5 Model Systems for Fe/S Proteins 128 7.6 Iron-containing Enzymes without Porphyrin or Sulfide Ligands 130 7.6.1 Iron-containing Ribonucleotide Reductase 130 7.6.2 Soluble Methane Monooxygenase 132 7.6.3 Purple Acid Phosphatases (Fe/Fe and Fe/Zn) 133 7.6.4 Mononuclear Non-heme Iron Enzymes 133 References 135 8 Uptake, Transport and Storage of an Essential Element, as Exemplified by Iron 139 Insertion: Metallome 139 8.1 The Problem of Iron Mobilization: Oxidation States, Solubility and Medical Relevance 140 8.2 Siderophores: Iron Uptake by Microorganisms 141 Insertion: Optical Isomerism in Octahedral Complexes 144 8.3 Phytosiderophores: Iron Uptake by Plants 149 8.4 Transport and Storage of Iron 150 8.4.1 Transferrin 152 8.4.2 Ferritin 155 8.4.3 Hemosiderin 159 References 160 9 Nickel-containing Enzymes: The Remarkable Career of a Long-overlooked Biometal 163 9.1 Overview 163 9.2 Urease 164 9.3 Hydrogenases 166 9.4 CO Dehydrogenase = CO Oxidoreductase = Acetyl-CoA Synthase 169 9.5 Methyl-coenzyme M Reductase (Including the F430 Cofactor) 172 Insertion: Natural and Artificial (Industrial) C1 Chemistry 174 Insertion: Bioorganometallics II: The Organometallic Chemistry of Cobalt and Nickel 176 9.6 Superoxide Dismutase 177 9.7 Model Compounds 178 Further Reading 178 References 179 10 Copper-containing Proteins: An Alternative to Biological Iron 183 10.1 Type 1: “Blue” Copper Centers 186 Insertion: Electron Paramagnetic Resonance II 187 10.2 Type 2 and Type 3 Copper Centers in O2-activating Proteins: Oxygen Transport and Oxygenation 191 10.3 Copper Proteins as Oxidases/Reductases 195 10.4 Cytochrome c Oxidase 200 10.5 Cu,Zn- and Other Superoxide Dismutases: Substrate-specific Antioxidants 203 References 207 11 Biological Functions of the “Early” Transition Metals: Molybdenum, Tungsten, Vanadium and Chromium 211 11.1 Oxygen Transfer through Tungsten- and Molybdenum-containing Enzymes 211 11.1.1 Overview 211 11.1.2 Oxotransferase Enzymes Containing the Molybdopterin or Tungstopterin Cofactor 213 Insertion: “Oxidation” 214 11.2 Metalloenzymes in the Biological Nitrogen Cycle: Molybdenum-dependent Nitrogen Fixation 219 11.3 Alternative Nitrogenases 226 11.4 Biological Vanadium Outside of Nitrogenases 229 11.5 Chromium(III) in the Metabolism? 231 References 232 12 Zinc: Structural and Gene-regulatory Functions and the Enzymatic Catalysis of Hydrolysis and Condensation Reactions 235 12.1 Overview 235 12.2 Carboanhydrase 238 12.3 Carboxypeptidase A and Other Hydrolases 243 12.4 Catalysis of Condensation Reactions by Zinc-containing Enzymes 248 12.5 Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Related Enzymes 249 12.6 The “Zinc Finger” and Other Gene-regulatory Zinc Proteins 251 12.7 Insulin, hGH, Metallothionein and DNA Repair Systems as Zinc-containing Proteins 253 References 254 13 Unequally Distributed Electrolytes: Function and Transport of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Cations 257 13.1 Characterization and Biological Roles of K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ 257 Insertion: Heteroatom Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 262 13.2 Complexes of Alkali and Alkaline Earth Metal Ions with Macrocycles 264 13.3 Ion Channels 267 13.4 Ion Pumps 270 Further Reading 273 References 273 14 Catalysis and Regulation of Bioenergetic Processes by the Alkaline Earth Metal Ions Mg2+ and Ca2+ 277 14.1 Magnesium: Catalysis of Phosphate Transfer by Divalent Ions 277 14.2 The Ubiquitous Regulatory Role of Ca2+ 283 Further Reading 291 References 291 15 Biomineralization: The Controlled Assembly of “Advanced Materials” in Biology 295 15.1 Overview 295 15.2 Nucleation and Crystal Growth 299 Insertion: Dimensions 300 15.3 Examples of Biominerals 301 15.3.1 Calcium Phosphate in the Bones of Vertebrates and the Global P Cycle 301 Insertion: The Global P Cycle 305 15.3.2 Calcium Carbonate and the Global Inorganic C Cycle 306 Insertion: The Global C Cycle and the Marine Inorganic C Cycle 307 15.3.3 Amorphous Silica 308 15.3.4 Iron Biominerals 309 15.3.5 Strontium and Barium Sulfates 310 15.4 Biomimetic Materials 310 Further Reading 311 References 311 16 Biological Functions of the Nonmetallic Inorganic Elements 315 16.1 Overview 315 16.2 Boron 315 16.3 Silicon 315 16.4 Arsenic and Trivalent Phosphorus 316 16.5 Bromine 317 16.6 Fluorine 317 16.7 Iodine 318 16.8 Selenium 320 References 324 17 The Bioinorganic Chemistry of the Quintessentially Toxic Metals 327 17.1 Overview 327 17.2 Lead 329 17.3 Cadmium 332 17.4 Thallium 334 17.5 Mercury 335 17.6 Aluminum 340 17.7 Beryllium 342 17.8 Chromium and Tungsten 343 17.9 Toxicity of Nanomaterials 344 Further Reading 345 References 345 18 Biochemical Behavior of Radionuclides and Medical Imaging Using Inorganic Compounds 349 18.1 Radiation Risks and Medical Benefits from Natural and Synthetic Radionuclides 349 18.1.1 The Biochemical Impact of Ionizing Radiation from Radioactive Isotopes 349 18.1.2 Natural and Synthetic Radioisotopes 350 18.1.3 Bioinorganic Chemistry of Radionuclides 351 Insertion: Fukushima Daiichi, Chernobyl, Hiroshima and Nuclear Weapons Testing 353 18.1.4 Radiopharmaceuticals 356 18.1.5 Technetium: A “Synthetic Bioinorganic Element” 359 18.1.6 Radiotracers for the Investigation of the Metallome 362 18.2 Medical Imaging Based on Nonradioactive Inorganic Compounds 362 18.2.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging 362 18.2.2 X-ray Contrast Agents 364 Further Reading 364 References 365 19 Chemotherapy Involving Nonessential Elements 369 19.1 Overview 369 19.2 Platinum Complexes in Cancer Therapy 369 19.2.1 Discovery, Application and Structure–Effect Relationships 369 19.2.2 Cisplatin: Mode of Action 372 19.3 New Anticancer Drugs Based on Transition Metal Complexes 378 19.3.1 Overview and Aims for Drug Development 378 19.3.2 Nonplatinum Anticancer Drugs 379 19.4 Further Inorganic Compounds in (Noncancer) Chemotherapy 383 19.4.1 Gold-containing Drugs Used in the Therapy of Rheumatoid Arthritis 383 19.4.2 Lithium in Psychopharmacologic Drugs 384 19.4.3 Bismuth Compounds against Ulcers 385 19.4.4 Vanadium-containing Insulin Mimetics and V-containing Anti-HIV Drugs 386 19.4.5 Sodium Nitroprusside 386 19.5 Bioorganometallic Chemistry of Nonessential Elements 387 Further Reading 389 References 389 Index
The field of Bioinorganic Chemistry has grown significantly in recent years; now one of the major sub-disciplines of Inorganic Chemistry, it has also pervaded other areas of the life sciences due to its highly interdisciplinary nature. Bioinorganic Chemistry: Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life, Second Edition provides a detailed introduction to the role of inorganic elements in biology, taking a systematic element-by-element approach to the topic. The second edition of this classic text has been fully revised and updated to include new structure information, emerging developments in the field, and an increased focus on medical applications of inorganic compounds. New topics have been added including materials aspects of bioinorganic chemistry, elemental cycles, bioorganometallic chemistry, medical imaging and therapeutic advances. Topics covered include: Metals at the center of photosynthesis Uptake, transport, and storage of essential elements Catalysis through hemoproteins Biological functions of molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium and chromium Function and transport of alkaline and alkaline earth metal cations Biomineralization Biological functions of the non-metallic inorganic elements Bioinorganic chemistry of toxic metals Biochemical behavior of radionuclides and medical imaging using inorganic compounds Chemotherapy involving non-essential elements This full color text provides a concise and comprehensive review of bioinorganic chemistry for advanced students of chemistry, biochemistry, biology, medicine and environmental science.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Metalloprotein Active Site Assembly
Metalloprotein Active Site Assembly
von: Michael K. Johnson, Robert A. Scott
PDF ebook
162,99 €