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Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials


Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials


1. Aufl.

von: Nicola Pinna, Mato Knez

138,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-VCH
Format: PDF
Veröffentl.: 19.09.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9783527639939
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 472

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Beschreibungen

Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique). This book is a must-have for all Materials Scientists, Surface Chemists, Physicists, and Scientists in the Semiconductor Industry.
Foreword V Preface XVII Introduction XXI List of Contributors XXXIII Part One Introduction to ALD 1 1 Theoretical Modeling of ALD Processes 3 Charles B. Musgrave 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Overview of Atomistic Simulations 3 1.3 Calculation of Properties Using Quantum Simulations 10 1.4 Prediction of ALD Chemical Mechanisms 13 1.5 Example of a Calculated ALD Mechanism: ALD of Al2O3 Using TMA and Water 16 References 20 2 Step Coverage in ALD 23 Sovan Kumar Panda and Hyunjung Shin 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Growth Techniques 24 2.3 Step Coverage Models in ALD 28 2.4 Experimental Verifications of Step Coverage Models 34 2.5 Summary 38 References 38 3 Precursors for ALD Processes 41 Matti Putkonen 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 General Requirements for ALD Precursors 42 3.3 Metallic Precursors for ALD 42 3.4 Nonmetal Precursors for ALD 49 3.5 Conclusions 50 References 51 4 Sol–Gel Chemistry and Atomic Layer Deposition 61 Guylhaine Clavel, Catherine Marichy, and Nicola Pinna 4.1 Aqueous and Nonaqueous Sol–Gel in Solution 61 4.2 Sol–Gel and ALD: An Overview 63 4.3 Mechanistic and In Situ Studies 70 References 76 5 Molecular Layer Deposition of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 83 Steven M. George, B. Yoon, Robert A. Hall, Aziz I. Abdulagatov, Zachary M. Gibbs, Younghee Lee, Dragos Seghete, and Byoung H. Lee 5.1 Introduction 83 5.2 General Issues for MLD of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 85 5.3 MLD Using Trimethylaluminum and Ethylene Glycol in an AB Process 87 5.4 Expansion to an ABC Process Using Heterobifunctional and Ring-Opening Precursors 89 5.5 Use of a Homotrifunctional Precursor to Promote Cross-Linking in an AB Process 93 5.6 Use of a Heterobifunctional Precursor in an ABC Process 96 5.7 MLD of Hybrid Alumina–Siloxane Films Using an ABCD Process 99 5.8 Future Prospects for MLD of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Films 103 References 106 6 Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition 109 Jens Meyer and Thomas Riedl 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Challenges of LT-ALD 110 6.3 Materials and Processes 113 6.4 Toward Novel LT-ALD Processes 115 6.5 Thin Film Gas Diffusion Barriers 117 6.6 Encapsulation of Organic Electronics 119 6.7 Conclusions 125 References 125 7 Plasma Atomic Layer Deposition 131 Erwin Kessels, Harald Profijt, Stephen Potts, and Richard van de Sanden 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Plasma Basics 134 7.3 Plasma ALD Configurations 139 7.4 Merits of Plasma ALD 142 7.5 Challenges for Plasma ALD 149 7.6 Concluding Remarks and Outlook 153 References 154 Part Two Nanostructures by ALD 159 8 Atomic Layer Deposition for Microelectronic Applications 161 Cheol Seong Hwang 8.1 Introduction 161 8.2 ALD Layers for Memory Devices 162 8.3 ALD for Logic Devices 180 8.4 Concluding Remarks 187 References 188 9 Nanopatterning by Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition 193 Han-Bo-Ram Lee and Stacey F. Bent 9.1 Concept of Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition 193 9.2 Change of Surface Properties 195 9.3 Patterning 205 9.4 Applications of AS-ALD 215 9.5 Current Challenges 216 References 218 10 Coatings on High Aspect Ratio Structures 227 Jeffrey W. Elam 10.1 Introduction 227 10.2 Models and Analysis 228 10.3 Characterization Methods for ALD Coatings in High Aspect Ratio Structures 230 10.4 Examples of ALD in High Aspect Ratio Structures 232 10.5 Nonideal Behavior during ALD in High Aspect Ratios 242 10.6 Conclusions and Future Outlook 245 References 246 11 Coatings of Nanoparticles and Nanowires 251 Hong Jin Fan and Kornelius Nielsch 11.1 ALD on Nanoparticles 251 11.2 Vapor–Liquid–Solid Growth of Nanowires by ALD 254 11.3 Atomic Layer Epitaxy on Nanowires 256 11.4 ALD on Semiconductor NWs for Surface Passivation 257 11.5 ALD-Assisted Formation of Nanopeapods 258 11.6 Photocorrosion of Semiconductor Nanowires Capped by ALD Shell 260 11.7 Interface Reaction of Nanowires with ALD Shell 261 11.8 ALD ZnO on NWs/Tubes as Seed Layer for Growth of Hyperbranch 265 11.9 Conclusions 267 References 268 12 Atomic Layer Deposition on Soft Materials 271 Gregory N. Parsons 12.1 Introduction 271 12.2 ALD on Polymers for Passivation, Encapsulation, and Surface Modification 274 12.3 ALD for Bulk Modification of Natural and Synthetic Polymers and Molecules 279 12.4 ALD for Polymer Sacrificial Templating: Membranes, Fibers, and Biological and Optical Structures 280 12.5 ALD Nucleation on Patterned and Planar SAMs and Surface Oligomers 283 12.6 Reactions during Al2O3 ALD on Representative Polymer Materials 286 12.7 Summary 291 References 292 13 Application of ALD to Biomaterials and Biocompatible Coatings 301 Mato Knez 13.1 Application of ALD to Biomaterials 302 13.2 Biocompatible Coatings 317 13.3 Summary 320 References 321 14 Coating of Carbon Nanotubes 327 Catherine Marichy, Andrea Pucci, Marc-Georg Willinger, and Nicola Pinna 14.1 Introduction 327 14.2 Purification and Surface Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes 328 14.3 Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Solution Routes 329 14.4 Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Gas-Phase Techniques 330 14.5 Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes 331 14.6 Coating of Large Quantity of CNTs by ALD 337 14.7 ALD Coating of Other sp2-Bonded Carbon Materials 338 14.8 Conclusions 340 References 340 15 Inverse Opal Photonics 345 Davy P. Gaillot and Christopher J. Summers 15.1 Introduction and Background 345 15.2 Properties of Three-Dimensional Photonic Band Structures 349 15.3 Large-Pore and Non-Close-Packed Inverse Opals 352 15.4 Experimental Studies 353 15.5 Tunable PC Structures 366 15.6 Summary 369 References 371 16 Nanolaminates 377 Adriana V. Szeghalmi and Mato Knez 16.1 Introduction 377 16.2 Optical Applications 377 16.3 Thin Film Encapsulation 383 16.4 Applications in Electronics 386 16.5 Copper Electroplating Applications 392 16.6 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells 393 16.7 Complex Nanostructures 394 16.8 Summary 395 References 396 17 Challenges in Atomic Layer Deposition 401 Markku Leskelä 17.1 Introduction 401 17.2 Metals 402 17.3 Nonmetal Elements 404 17.4 Binary Compounds 406 17.5 Ternary and Quaternary Compounds 414 17.6 Nucleation 415 17.7 Conclusions 416 References 417 Index 423
Nicola Pinna studied physical chemistry at the Universite Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris). He received his PhD in 2001, and in 2002, he moved to the Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society (Berlin). In 2003, he joined the Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces (Potsdam). In 2005, he moved to the Martin Luther University, Halle-Wittenberg, as an Assistant Professor of Inorganic Chemistry. Since 2006 he is researcher at the Department of Chemistry and CICECO of the University of Aveiro and since 2009 he is also Assistant Professor at the School of Chemical and Biological Engineering of the Seoul National University. In 2011 he was ranked among the top 100 materials scientists of the past decade by impact. His research activity is focused on the development of novel routes to nanostructured materials, their characterization, and the study of their physical properties. Mato Knez studied chemistry at the University of Ulm in Germany. He did his dissertation at the Max Planck Institute of solid state research in Stuttgart from 2000-2003. In 2003 he joined the Max Planck Institute for Microstructure Physics in Halle as a Postdoc where he established the ALD-based research direction. Since 2006 he is leading a research group funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). In January 2012 he will join CIC nanoGUNE in San Sebastian (Spain) as an Ikerbasque Research Professor. His research activities are mainly focused on various aspects of the application of ALD, including the synthesis of optical nanolaminates, infi ltration mechanisms when ALD is applied to soft materials, and ALD-assisted nanofabrication of photonic and plasmonic structures. Aside from ALD he has strong research activites in biotemplated inorganic nanostructures for applications in nanotechnology and medicine.
Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique). This book is a must-have for all Materials Scientists, Surface Chemists, Physicists, and Scientists in the Semiconductor Industry.

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