Archaeology in PracticeA Student Guide to Archaeological Analyses
This much-enhanced new edition of the highly accessible guide to practical archaeology is a vital resource for students. It features the latest methodologies, a wealth of case studies from around the world, and contributions from leading specialists in archaeological materials analysis.New edition updated to include the latest archaeological methods, an enhanced focus on post-excavation analysis and new material including a dedicated chapter on analyzing human remainsCovers the full range of current analytic methods, such as analysis of stone tools, human remains and absolute datingFeatures a user-friendly structure organized according to material types such as animal bones, ceramics and stone artifacts, as well as by thematic topics ranging from dating techniques to report writing, and ethical concerns.Accessible to archaeology students at all levels, with detailed references and extensive case studies featured throughout
Chapter Abstracts xviiPreface and Acknowledgments xxiNotes on Contributors xxvList of Tables xxixList of Figures xxx1 Collaborating with Stakeholders 1Larry J. Zimmerman and Kelly M. BranamIntroduction 1What and Who Is an Archaeological Stakeholder? 2Collaboration Comes in Many Forms 4Learning to Work with Stakeholders: A Discipline’s Journey 7Differing Ways of Knowing the Past 11True or valid? 11How can there be different versions of the same past? 12General Thoughts about How to Consult with Stakeholders 13Building trust takes time 14Use ethnography 15Specific Issues and Concerns 15Differential power levels 15Competing claims 15Informed consent 17When pasts conflict 18What do you do if things go wrong? 18Owning the Past 19Where to from Here? 19Acknowledgments 20Further Reading 20References 212 Stratigraphy 26Jane Balme and Alistair PatersonIntroduction 26What Is Stratigraphy? 27Why Do Archaeologists Study Stratification? 27How Do Different Layers Occur in Archaeological Sites? 27Principles (or Laws) of Stratigraphy 29Sources of disturbance 30Excavation and Stratigraphy 32Recording Stratifi cation 33The Harris Matrix: Interpreting the spatial record 34Creating Analytical Units 37Case Study 2.1: Sos Höyük 38Conclusions 44Acknowledgments 44Further Reading 44Excavation 44Stratigraphy and formation processes 44References 443 Sediments 47Anthony Barham and Gary HuckleberryIntroduction 47Why Study Soils and Sediments? 48Sediments and Soils – Defi ning Concepts and Terms 50Field Description and Sampling 51Broad principles which should be applied during sediment sampling and description 53Laboratory Techniques 54Granulometry 55pH (acidity/alkalinity) 60Color 62Organic matter 63Phosphorus 65Case Study 3.1: Prehistoric Canals in the American Southwest 67Case Study 3.2: Kennewick Man, Washington State, United States 72Conclusions 76Further Reading 77References 774 Absolute Dating 85Simon HoldawayIntroduction 85Chronometry 86Radiocarbon 86Dendrochronology 90Isotopic methods 91Radiogenic methods 92Chemical and biological methods 94Geomorphic methods 95Limits on Chronometric Techniques 96Maximum limits 96Minimum limits 98Limits on radiogenic techniques 100Precision 101From Age Measurement to Chronology 101Temporal Resolution and Behavioral Variation 103Fidelity and resolution 104Bayesian analysis 105Time averaging 106Case Study 4.1: Bone Cave 108Time perspectivism 110Conclusion 110Acknowledgments 111Further Reading 111References 1115 Rock Art 118Jo McDonaldIntroduction 118What Is Rock Art? 118How is Rock Art Made? 119Classification 120How Is Rock Art Recorded? 122Photography 123Drawing and sketching 124Tracing 124Counting 127How and Why Is Rock Art Analyzed? 128Informed Methods 129Formal (or Structural) Methods 129Statistical techniques 130Spatial distribution analysis 130Information exchange and stylistic heterogeneity 131Diachronic change 131Dating Rock Art 132Relative dating 132Scientific techniques 135Gender and Rock Art 135Case Study 5.1: The Depiction of Species in Macropod Track Engravings 136Concluding Remarks 142Resources 142Key associations and journals 143Further Reading 143References 1436 An Introduction to Stone Artifact Analysis 151Chris Clarkson and Sue O’ConnorIntroduction 151An overview 151Analyzing Stone Artifacts 167Research design 167Classifying an assemblage of stone artifacts 168Choosing attributes to record and measure 173Managing data 176Measuring extent of reduction 177Dealing with diffi cult assemblages 187Archaeometry 191Determining the type and fl aking properties of stone 192Sourcing stone artifacts 192Is 3D the future of lithic analysis? 193Conclusion 194Acknowledgments 195Further Reading 195References 1957 Ceramics 207Linda EllisIntroduction 207What Is a “Ceramic?” 209How Is Pottery Made? 210Clay preparation 210Object formation 211Prefire decoration 211Firing 212Postfire treatment 212Handling of Ceramics during and after Excavation 213Careful excavating 213Cleaning ceramics 214Marking ceramics 214Repairing ceramics 215Initiating an Analytical Program for Ceramics 215Prefatory issues before undertaking an analytical program 216Quantitative analysis of ceramics 216Sampling for laboratory analysis 219How to begin analysis and select an appropriate analytical method 220Areas of Ceramics Research and Their Analytical Approaches 221Technology studies 224Identifying the people producing and using ceramics 225Dating of ceramics 226Sourcing of ceramics 227Usewear and use-life studies of ceramics 228Conclusion 229Resources 229References 2298 Residues and Usewear 232Richard FullagarIntroduction 232Functional Analysis 233Methodology, Experiments, and Procedures 234Microscopes 238Artifact Cleaning 239Plant Residues Found on Artifacts 241Starch 241Raphides 242Phytoliths 242Resin, gums, waxes, and other exudates 243Animal Residues Found on Artifacts 243Hair and feathers 243Blood 243Bone 245Shell 245Usewear 245Scarring or edge fracturing 246Striations 246Polish 249Edge rounding 249Beveling 249Postdepositional damage 250Hafting traces 250Residues on Grinding Stones and Potsherds 250Case Study 8.1: Starch Grains Analysis of Residues on Grinding Stones 251Case Study 8.2: Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Analysis of Archaeological Residues (by Elyse Beck and Peter Grave) 252Discussion and Conclusion 253Acknowledgments 255Further Reading 255References 2559 Animal Bones 264Terry O’Connor and James BarrettIntroduction 264Look Before You Dig 265Sampling and Recovery 269Bagging and Tagging 277Working Facilities 279Making the Record 282Identification: Whose Bone Is This? 283What Has Happened to These Bones? 285Who Was This Animal? 286Preparing for the Research Phase 291And Finally 293References 29410 Human Remains 300Charlotte RobertsIntroduction: Why Study Human Remains and How It Has Developed 300Ethics and Human Remains 304Taphonomy, funerary context, and excavation and their effect on analysis and interpretation 306Care of human remains during and after excavation 307Detection 308Excavation 308Cleaning the remains once excavated 310Curation of human remains 311The starting point: basic analysis and interpretation 312Sex and age at death 313Paleodemography 316Normal and Abnormal Variation 317Normal variation 317Abnormal variation 320Methods 322Studies of the Health of Populations 323Specific Studies of Disease 324Macroscopic 324Biomolecular 324Using Multiple Methods to Answer Questions on Past Health 326Conclusion 328Resources 328References 32911 Plant Remains 336Wendy Beck and Emilie Dotte-SaroutIntroduction: A Scene (by Wendy Beck) 336Macroscopic Plant Remains 337What Can Plant Remains Contribute to Archaeology? 338The relationship between people and plants 338Plants and technology 339Plants and regional subsistence 339Archaeological theories and plants 340What Are the Problems (and Solutions) for Identifying and Interpreting Macroscopic Plant Remains? 341Technical problems in analyzing macroplants and their solutions 341Archaeological sources 341Ethnobotanical and ethnoarchaeological sources 341What Kinds of Methods Can Be Effectively Used to Retrieve and Analyze Plant Remains? 342Basic plant classification 344Archaeological retrieval and identification of seeds, nuts, and fruits (carpology) 346Wood and charcoal (anthracology) 346More problems in the analysis of plant remains 346Case Study 11.1: Plant Remains from Kawambarai Cave, Near Coonabarabran, Eastern Australia (by Wendy Beck and Dee Murphy) 349Conclusion 354Further Reading 355References 35512 Shell Middens and Mollusks 361Sandra BowdlerIntroduction 361Background 363The Creation of Middens 363The Identification of Middens 364Field Procedures 366Dating Middens 370Laboratory Procedures 370Hand Sorting into Components 371Shellfish Analysis 372Identification of Shellfish and Other Species 373Further Analysis 378Shell Artifacts 379Fish Remains 379Interp
Jane Balme is a Professor of Archaeology at the University of Western Australia, where her research specializes in hunter-gatherer archaeology and the human colonization of Australia. Balme co-edited Gendered Archaeology: The Second Australian Women in Archaeology Conference (with Wendy Beck, 1995).Alistair Paterson is a Professor of Archaeology at the University of Western Australia. His research and teaching specialize in culture contact, historical archaeology in maritime and terrestrial contexts, European colonization, ancient rock art, and archaeological and historical methodology. He is the author of A Millennium of Cultural Contact (2011) and The Lost Legions: Culture Contact in Colonial Australia (2008).
Fully updating the first edition of this essential guide for archaeology students, the editors bring together a set of core chapters by expert analysts, with extensive case studies from sites around the world. The text provides a solid introduction to archaeological analysis, focusing on postexcavation methods and materials. The volume’s user-friendly structure has been organized according to material types such as animal bones, ceramics, and stone artifacts, with a brand new chapter on analyzing human remains, as well as by thematic topics ranging from dating techniques to report writing and ethical concerns.This invaluable practical manual of archaeological methodology includes a wealth of applications of archaeological techniques and reflects modern best-practice, especially one that foregrounds collaboration with professional and community stakeholders. The chapters cover the full range of current analyses backed by useful case studies from around the world. The editors offer material that is accessible to archaeology students at all levels and include ample up-to-date references and suggestions for further reading.
“Archaeology in Practice is the leading text on optimal field and laboratory methods and how to link these to research questions. Superbly-referenced this is an essential resource for both students and professionals.”Peter Veth, The University of Western Australia
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