Details

Aquaculture Production Systems


Aquaculture Production Systems


World Aquaculture Society Book series 1. Aufl.

von: James H. Tidwell

92,99 €

Verlag: Wiley-Blackwell
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 29.02.2012
ISBN/EAN: 9781118250099
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 440

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Beschreibungen

Aquaculture is an increasingly diverse industry with an ever-growing number of species cultured and production systems available to professionals. A basic understanding of production systems is vital to the successful practice of aquaculture. Published with the World Aquaculture Society, Aquaculture Production Systems captures the huge diversity of production systems used in the production of shellfish and finfish in one concise volume that allows the reader to better understand how aquaculture depends upon and interacts with its environment. The systems examined range from low input methods to super-intensive systems. Divided into five sections that each focus on a distinct family of systems, Aquaculture Production Systems serves as an excellent text to those just being introduced to aquaculture as well as being a valuable reference to well-established professionals seeking information on production methods.
Contributors xi Preface xiv Acknowledgments xvi 1 The Role of Aquaculture 3 James H. Tidwell and Geoff Allan 1.1 Seafood demand 3 1.2 Seafood supply 4 1.3 Seafood trade 6 1.4 Status of aquaculture 7 1.5 Production systems 12 1.6 The future and the challenge 13 1.7 References 13 2 History of Aquaculture 15 Robert R. Stickney and Granvil D. Treece 2.1 Beginnings of aquaculture 16 2.2 Expansion prior to the mid-1800s 17 2.3 The explosion of hatcheries 18 2.4 Art becomes science 20 2.5 Commercial finfish species development 23 2.6 Shrimp culture 33 2.7 Mollusk culture 42 2.8 Controversy 43 2.9 References 44 3 Functions and Characteristics of All Aquaculture Systems 51 James H. Tidwell 3.1 Differences in aquatic and terrestrial livestock 51 3.2 Ecological services provided by aquaculture production systems 53 3.3 Diversity of aquaculture animals 53 3.4 Temperature classifications of aquacultured animals 54 3.5 Temperature control in aquaculture systems 56 3.6 Providing oxygen in aquaculture systems 58 3.7 Waste control in aquaculture systems 59 3.8 Aquaculture systems as providers of natural foods 61 3.9 References 62 4 Characterization and Categories of Aquaculture Production Systems 64 James H. Tidwell 4.1 Open systems 65 4.2 Semi-closed systems 68 4.3 Closed systems 73 4.4 Hybrid systems 75 4.5 References 77 5 Shellfish Aquaculture 79 Robert Rheault 5.1 Major species in culture (oysters, clams, scallops, mussels) 80 5.2 History 81 5.3 Biology 84 5.4 Culture basics 86 5.5 Extensive versus intensive culture 88 5.6 Spat collection: hatchery, nursery, growout 89 5.7 Cultured algae 91 5.8 Spawning 92 5.9 Larval development 93 5.10 Setting 94 5.11 Nursery and growout scale considerations 96 5.12 Nursery methods 97 5.13 Growout methods 100 5.14 Fouling 104 5.15 Fouling control strategies 104 5.16 Predation 105 5.17 Harvest 106 5.18 Food safety 107 5.19 Shellfish diseases 108 5.20 Disease management options 108 5.21 Genetics: selective breeding 109 5.22 Triploidy 110 5.23 Harmful algal blooms 110 5.24 Site selection 111 5.25 Carrying capacity 112 5.26 Permitting challenges 113 5.27 Nonnative species 114 5.28 References 115 6 Cage Culture in Freshwater and Protected Marine Areas 119 Michael P. Masser 6.1 Current status of cage culture 121 6.2 History and evolution of cage culture 122 6.3 Advantages and disadvantages of cages 123 6.4 Site selection 124 6.5 Stocking cages 125 6.6 Feeding caged fish 126 6.7 Polyculture and integrated systems 126 6.8 Problems with cage culture 127 6.9 Economics of cage culture 129 6.10 Sustainability issues 129 6.11 References 130 7 Ocean Cage Culture 135 Richard Langan 7.1 The context for open ocean farming 135 7.2 Characterization and selection of open ocean sites 137 7.3 Technologies for open ocean farming 139 7.4 Finfish species cultivated in open ocean cages 148 7.5 Environmental considerations 149 7.6 Future prospects and challenges 153 7.7 References 154 8 Reservoir Ranching 158 Steven D. Mims and Richard J. Onders 8.1 Reservoir ranching vs. culture-based fisheries 158 8.2 Reservoir 159 8.3 Natural processes of reservoirs 160 8.4 Selection of reservoirs for reservoir ranching 162 8.5 Fish species selection 164 8.6 Stocking density and size 165 8.7 Status of reservoir ranching around the world 166 8.8 Summary 170 8.9 References 171 9 Flow-through Raceways 173 Gary Fornshell, Jeff Hinshaw, and James H. Tidwell 9.1 Types of raceways 174 9.2 Physical requirements 177 9.3 Water requirements 179 9.4 Carrying capacity 180 9.5 Water consumption and waste management 183 9.6 Feeding and inventory management 186 9.7 Summary 187 9.8 References 189 10 Ponds 191 Craig Tucker and John Hargreaves 10.1 Species cultured 193 10.2 Pond types 195 10.3 Water use 198 10.4 Pond culture intensity and ecological services 201 10.5 Food in pond aquaculture 202 10.6 Life support in pond aquaculture 208 10.7 Land use and the ecological footprint of pond aquaculture 222 10.8 Consequences of unregulated algal growth 227 10.9 Practical constraints on pond aquaculture production 230 10.10 Comparative economics of culture systems 234 10.11 Sustainability issues 237 10.12 Trends and research needs 240 10.13 References 242 11 Recirculating Aquaculture Systems 245 James M. Ebeling and Michael B. Timmons 11.1 Positive attributes 246 11.2 Overview of system engineering 247 11.3 Culture tanks 249 11.4 Waste solids removal 250 11.5 Cornell dual-drain system 250 11.6 Settling basins and tanks 252 11.7 Mechanical filters 252 11.8 Granular media filters 253 11.9 Disposal of the solids 254 11.10 Biofiltration 254 11.11 Choice of biofilter 258 11.12 Aeration and oxygenation 259 11.13 Carbon dioxide removal 261 11.14 Monitoring and control 262 11.15 Current system engineering design 262 11.16 Recirculation system design 263 11.17 Four major water-treatment variables 265 11.18 Summary of four production terms 268 11.19 Stocking density 270 11.20 Engineering design example 270 11.21 Conclusion 276 11.22 References 277 12 Biofloc-based Aquaculture Systems 278 Craig L. Browdy, Andrew J. Ray, John W. Leffler, and Yoram Avnimelech 12.1 Bioflocs 280 12.2 Oxygen dynamics 284 12.3 Resuspension, mixing, and sludge management 287 12.4 Nitrogenous waste products 290 12.5 Temperature 296 12.6 Feeds and feeding 297 12.7 Economics 299 12.8 Sustainability 300 12.9 Outlook and research needs 302 12.10 Acknowledgment 303 12.11 References 303 13 Partitioned Aquaculture Systems 308 D. E. Brune, Craig Tucker, Mike Massingill, and Jesse Chappell 13.1 High rate ponds in aquaculture—the partitioned aquaculture system 311 13.2 PAS fingerling production 324 13.3 Flow-through PAS: the controlled eutrophication process 326 13.4 Photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic PAS for marine shrimp production 329 13.5 Alabama in-pond raceway system 331 13.6 Mississippi split-pond aquaculture system 333 13.7 California pondway system 336 13.8 References 340 14 Aquaponics—Integrating Fish and Plant Culture 343 James E. Rakocy 14.1 System design 345 14.2 Fish production 349 14.3 Solids 352 14.4 Biofiltration 357 14.5 Hydroponic subsystems 360 14.6 Sump 362 14.7 Construction materials 363 14.8 Component ratios 364 14.9 Plant growth requirements 366 14.10 Nutrient dynamics 368 14.11 Vegetable selection 372 14.12 Crop production systems 373 14.13 Pest and disease control 375 14.14 Approaches to system design 376 14.15 Economics 380 14.16 Prospects for the future 382 14.17 References 383 15 In-pond Raceways 387 Michael P. Masser 15.1 Development of the in-pond raceway 388 15.2 Stocking and feeding 390 15.3 Backup systems and disease treatments 391 15.4 Comparison to other culture systems 391 15.5 Sustainability issues 393 15.6 Future trends 393 15.7 References 393 16 On the Drawing Board 395 James H. Tidwell 16.1 Future trends 395 16.2 References 412 Index 415
“The book provides both a valuable introduction to aquaculture for new students or the curious layman and serves as an indispensable reference for the seasoned academic or industry professional seeking the latest comprehensive information addressing aquaculture production systems and how they interact with the environment.” (Journal of aquatic Food Product Technology, 27 February 2013) “It will, however, be a useful resource for students and early-career aquaculture scientists. In addition, the book should be of interest to non-aquaculture professionals and practitioners who wish to have a compilation volume that gives concise overviews of the production systems that are used to farm aquatic animals.” (Aquaculture International, 1 October 2012)
James H. Tidwell is Professor and Chair of the Division of Aquaculture at the Aquaculture Research Center at Kentucky State University.
Aquaculture is an increasingly diverse industry with an ever-growing number of species cultured and production systems available to professionals. A basic understanding of production systems is vital to the successful practice of aquaculture. Aquaculture Production Systems provides a valuable survey of key production systems that will allow the reader to better understand how aquaculture depends upon and interacts with its environment. Aquaculture Production Systems looks at a variety of systems currently used in the production of shellfish and finfish. These systems range from low input methods to super-intensive systems. Divided into five sections that each focus on a distinct family of systems, Aquaculture Production Systems will serve as an excellent text to those just being introduced to aquaculture as well as being a valuable reference to well-established professionals seeking information on production methods.

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