Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals
Revised and updated, the eighth edition of Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals remains the essential resource for detailed information on farm animal anatomy and physiology. Offers a revised edition to this comprehensive guide to the anatomy and physiology of farm animals Presents learning objectives in each chapter for the first time Adds new material on endocrine and metabolic regulation of growth and body composition Features additional illustrations to enhance comprehension Includes a companion website that offers supplemental content, including word roots, clinical cases, study and practice questions, the images from the book and additional images, diagrams, and videos to enhance learning.
Acknowledgment About the Companion Website Chapter 1 Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Anatomical Nomenclature, Directional Terms, and Planes of Section Microscopic Anatomy: Animal Cells and Tissues Epithelial Tissues Connective Tissues Muscle Tissue Nervous Tissue The General Plan of the Animal Body Chapter 2 Anatomy and Physiology of the Cell Properties of Life Chemical Composition of the Cell Water Proteins Lipids Carbohydrates Inorganic Substances Acids, Bases and pH Microscopic Study of the Cell Light Microscopy Electron Microscopy The Cell Membrane Structure of the Membrane Intercellular Contact and Adhesion Transport Across Cell Membranes Simple and Facilitated Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport Membrane Potentials and Excitable Cells Resting Membrane Potential Excitable Cells and Action Potentials Membrane Receptors and Intracellular Signaling Cytoplasm and Cytoplasmic Organelles Cytoplasm The Golgi Apparatus The Endoplasmic Reticulum and Ribosomes Mitochondria Lysosomes Other Structures Nucleus Structure of the Nucleus DNA and DNA Replication RNA: Transcription and Translation Biotechnology Cell Division Mitosis Meiosis Regulation of Cell Growth and Replication Chapter 3 Embryology Development of Germ Layers Principles of Differentiation Neurulation Mesodermal Differentiation Teratogenesis Chapter 4 The Skeletal System Functions of Bones Terminology Classification of Bones According to Gross Appearance Axial Skeleton Skull Vertebral Column Sternum and Ribs Appendicular Skeleton Thoracic Limbs Pelvic Limbs Chapter 5 Microscopic Anatomy and Growth and Development of Bone Microscopic Anatomy and Formation of Bone Ossification Endochondral (Intracartilaginous) Ossification Intramembranous Ossification Physiology of Bone Bone Mechanics and Remodeling Calcium of Bone Fractures and Fracture Healing Other Pathologic Conditions Chapter 6 Joints Classification of Joints Fibrous Joints Cartilaginous Joints Synovial Joints Other Synovial Structures Movements of Joints Types of Synovial Joints Joints of the Axial Skeleton Joints of the Appendicular Skeleton Joints of the Thoracic Limb Joints of the Pelvic Limb Pathology of Joints and Related Structures Chapter 7 Anatomy of the Muscular System Types of Muscle Tissue Skeletal Muscle Organization Muscle Attachments Functional Grouping of Muscles Synovial Structures Muscles of the Thoracic Limb Extrinsic Muscles of the Thoracic Limb Muscles Acting on the Shoulder Joint Muscles Acting on the Elbow Muscles Acting on the Distal Limb Muscles of the Pelvic Limb Muscles Acting on the Hip Joint Muscles Acting on the Stifle Muscles Acting on the Distal Limb Muscles of the Head Muscles of Mastication Muscles of Facial Expression Other Muscles of the Head Muscles of the Trunk and Neck Extensors of the Vertebral Column Flexors of the Vertebral Column Abdominal Muscles Muscles of Respiration Chapter 8 The Equine Foot and Passive Stay Apparatus Structure of the Foot Bones and Cartilages Cornified Tissues Tendons Ligaments Synovial Structures Function Concussion and Storage of Energy Stay Apparatus Thoracic Limb Pelvic Limb Chapter 9 Microscopic Anatomy and Physiology of Muscle Skeletal Muscle Structure Excitation, Contraction, and Relaxation Strength of Contraction Drugs That Affect Skeletal Muscle Function Types of Muscle Contraction Smooth Muscle Structure Stress–Relaxation Contraction and Relaxation Role and Sources of Calcium Action Potentials and Slow Waves Autonomic Innervation Cardiac Muscle Excitation and Contraction Cardiac Hypertrophy Chapter 10 Anatomy of the Nervous System Microscopic Neuroanatomy Embryology Central Nervous System Brain Meninges Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous System Spinal Nerves Cranial Nerves Autonomic Nervous System Sympathetic Nervous System Parasympathetic Nervous System Enteric Nervous System Chapter 11 Physiology of the Nervous System Functional Regions of the Neuron Physiology of the Nerve Impulse Conduction Velocity and Myelination Synaptic Transmission Neurotransmitters Neural Control of Skeletal Muscle Reflexes Involving Skeletal Muscle Contraction Voluntary Movement Physiology of the Autonomic Nervous System Regulation of Autonomic Nervous System Activity Autonomic Neurotransmitters and Their Receptors Regeneration and Repair in the Nervous System Chapter 12 Sense Organs Sensory Receptors Somatosensation Pain Proprioception Touch Visceral Sensations Chemical Senses Gustation Olfaction Hearing and Balance External Ear Middle Ear Internal Ear Physiology of Hearing Mechanisms of Balance Vision Ocular Adnexa Globe Lens Visual Field and Light Path Visual Pathways of the Brain Chapter 13 Endocrinology Hormones and Their Receptors Chemical Classes of Hormones Eicosanoids Hormone Receptors Cellular Effects of Peptide Hormones Cellular Effects of Steroid and Thyroid Hormones Negative and Positive Feedback Regulation Hypothalamopituitary Axis Hormones of the Neurohypophysis Hormones of the Adenohypophysis Growth Hormone Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Other Endocrine Glands Parathyroid Glands Pancreatic Islets Epiphysis (Pineal Gland) Chapter 14 The Integument Integument Skin Epidermis Dermis Hypodermis Adnexa of the Skin Hair Glands Modified Epidermis Hooves Horns Dewclaws Chestnuts and Ergots Coat Color in Horses Wool Chapter 15 Blood and Other Body Fluids Blood Formed Elements of Blood and Hematopoiesis Erythrocytes Platelets Leukocytes Plasma and Serum Blood pH Hemostasis and Coagulation Platelets and the Endothelium Intrinsic and Extrinsic Coagulation Pathways Lymph Serous Fluids Chapter 16 Body Defenses and the Immune System Nonspecific Defenses Specific Immune Response B Lymphocytes Immunoglobulins T Cells and Cell-Mediated Immunity Lymphocyte Origin, Development, and Residence Active and Passive Immunities Immunological Surveillance Lymphatic System Lymphatic Vessels Lymph Nodes Spleen Thymus Tonsils Chapter 17 Anatomy of the Cardiovascular System Heart Pericardium Cardiac Anatomy Vessels Blood Vessels Lymphatic Vessels Pulmonary Circulation Systemic Circulation Aorta Arterial Distribution to the Head Arterial Distribution to Thoracic Limb Arterial Distribution to Pelvic Limb Veins Cranial Vena Cava Caudal Vena Cava Portal System Fetal Circulation Chapter 18 Physiology of the Heart and Circulation Basic Design and Function of the Cardiovascular System Cardiac Cycle Systole Diastole Heart Sounds and Murmurs Echocardiography Electrical Activity of the Heart Sinoatrial Node and Heart Rate Atrioventricular Node and Other Specialized Conductive Cells in the Heart Electrocardiography and Arrhythmias Cardiac Output and Its Regulation Ventricular Filling and Stroke Volume Cardiac Contractility and Stroke Volume Structure and Function of Blood Vessels Microscopic Structure of Blood Vessels Function of Blood Vessels Regulation of Arterial Blood Pressure and Blood Volume Neural Reflexes Humoral Agents Paracrine Agents Cardiovascular Function During Exercise and Hypovolemia Chapter 19 The Respiratory System Upper Respiratory Tract Nose Paranasal Sinuses Pharynx Larynx Trachea and Bronchi Thorax Lungs Pleura Physiology of Respiration Ventilation Gas Exchange Gas Transport in Blood Control of Ventilation Chapter 20 Anatomy of the Digestive System Organization of the Digestive System Mouth Teeth Tongue Pharynx Tonsils Esophagus Simple Stomach Ruminant Stomach Ruminoreticulum Omasum Abomasum Small Intestine Large Intestine Ruminants Pig Horse Peritoneal Features Accessory Digestive Organs Salivary Glands Pancreas Liver Chapter 21 Physiology of Digestion Pregastric Physiology Prehension and Chewing Saliva and Salivary Glands Swallowing Ruminant Forestomach Fermentative Digestion Forestomach Motility Reticular, or Esophageal, Groove Omasum Gastric Physiology Gastric Glands and Secretions Gastric Motility Physiology of the Small Intestine, Exocrine Pancreas, and Liver Small Intestine Secretions and Motility Exocrine Pancreas Liver Digestive Functions and Secretion of Bile Nutrient Absorption in the Small Intestine Physiology of the Cecum and Colon Cecum and Colon of the Horse Rectum and Defecation Neuroendocrine Control of Feeding Chapter 22 Nutrition and Metabolism Nutrition Metabolism Absorptive State: Anabolism Postabsorptive State: Catabolism Energy Needs During Exercise Blood Glucose in Ruminants Ketosis Chapter 23 The Urinary System Anatomy of the Kidney Blood and Nerve Supply Ureters, Urinary Bladder, and Urethra Micturition Overview of Function and Histology of the Kidneys Glomerular Filtration Proximal Tubule Transport Concentration and Dilution of Urine: Role of the Loop of Henle and Collecting Duct Transport Sodium Chloride and Water Reabsorption by the Loop of Henle Collecting Duct Transport and Antidiuretic Hormone Osmotic Regulation of Antidiuretic Hormone Polyuria and Polydipsia Sodium, Potassium, and Aldosterone Urine Acidification Regulation of Acid-Base Balance Extracellular and Intracellular Buffers Classification of Alkalosis and Acidosis and Compensation Chapter 24 Anatomy of the Male Reproductive System Testis Epididymis Ductus Deferens Scrotum Inguinal Canal Descent of the Testis Castration Accessory Sex Glands Ampullae Vesicular Glands Prostate Gland Bulbourethral Glands Penis Prepuce Muscles of the Male Genitalia Blood and Nerve Supply of the Male Genitalia Chapter 25 Physiology of Male Reproduction Seminiferous Tubules and Spermatogenesis Seminiferous Tubules Germ Cells and Spermatogenesis Spermatozoa Morphology and Spermatogenesis Rates and Timing of Spermatogenesis Epididymis Semen and Semen Technology Hormones of Male Reproduction Endocrine Regulation of Testicular Function Testosterone and Its Effects Erection and Ejaculation Chapter 26 Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System Ovaries Uterine Tubes Uterus Vagina Vestibule and Vulva Blood and Nerve Supply of the Female Reproductive Tract Chapter 27 The Ovary and Estrous Cycles Oogenesis Secondary Follicles Hormones and Follicular Development Ovulation Luteinizing Hormone Surge Spontaneous and Reflex Ovulators Seasonal Transition Corpus Luteum Phases of the Estrous Cycle Proestrus Estrus Metestrus Diestrus and Anestrus Puberty Specifics of Selected Estrous Cycles Mare Cow Ewe Sow Chapter 28 Pregnancy and Parturition Fertilization Spermatozoa Transport and Viability Gamete Fusion and Early Embryonic Development Implantation and Placentation Hormones of Pregnancy Progesterone Equine Chorionic Gonadotrophin Relaxin Pregnancy Diagnosis Parturition Late Gestation Initiation of Parturition Oxytocin Fetal Presentations and Delivery Dystocia Chapter 29 Anatomy and Physiology of the Mammary Glands Mammary Glands of the Cow Suspensory Apparatus Blood Supply Lymphatic Vessels Microscopic Anatomy of the Mammary Gland Mammary Glands of Swine Mammary Glands of Sheep and Goats Mammary Glands of the Horse Physiology of Lactation Composition of Milk Milk Secretion Lactogenesis Galactogenesis Milk Ejection or Letdown Colostrum Cessation of Lactation Chapter 30 Poultry Integument Body Design Skeleton and Bone Musculature Gastrointestinal System Respiratory System Ventilation and Gas Exchange Cardiovascular System Lymphatic System Urinary System Female Reproductive System Egg Formation and Oviposition Male Reproductive System Sex Chromosomes Reproduction and Photoperiods Appendix: Abbreviations Bibliography Index
Anna Dee Fails, DVM, PhD, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA. Christianne Magee, DVM, PhD, Diplomate American College of Theriogenologists, is an Assistant Professor in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Revised and updated, the eighth edition ofAnatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals remains the essential resource for detailed information on farm animal anatomy and physiology. This new edition offers a comprehensive and accessible approach to all aspects of the subject, including the composition of the cell, the anatomy of the nervous system, the skeletal system, physiology of muscle, and much more. This eighth edition adds a wealth of new illustrations throughout and useful new learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter. New material covers endocrine and metabolic regulation of growth and body composition, and a companion website provides clinical cases, study and practice questions, and the images from the book in PowerPoint. A key text for biomedical and animal science students and instructors, this classic reference is also useful for practicing veterinarians. This updated eighth edition: Offers a revised edition to this comprehensive guide to the anatomy and physiology of farm animals Presents learning objectives in each chapter for the first time Adds new material on endocrine and metabolic regulation of growth and body composition Features additional illustrations to enhance comprehension Includes a companion website that offers supplemental content, including word roots, clinical cases, study and practice questions, the images from the book and additional images, diagrams, and videos to enhance learning. A trusted text for veterinary, animal science, biomedical science, agriculture, and veterinary technician students, Anatomy and Physiology of Farm Animals continues to offer thorough, clear, and comprehensible information.
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