CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) is one type of multiple access system used in radio communication. Other multiple access methods include TDMA, FDMA, etc. WCDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is the main air interface used for third generation mobile communication systems - UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunication System) and is characterised by a wider band than CDMA. WCDMA uses a wider radio band than CDMA, which was used for 2G systems, and has a high transfer rate and increased system capacity and communication quality by statistical multiplexing, etc. WCDMA efficiently utilises the radio spectrum to provide a maximum data rate of 2 Mbit/s. Third generation mobile communication systems are scheduled for operational startup in Japan and Europe in 2001-2002. Applying high-speed data transfer and state-of-the-art radio terminal technology, third generations systems enable multimedia and are currently in the process of being standardised under 3GPP. Among the three types of system to be standardised (i.e. WCDMA, MC-CDMA, UTRA TDD), Japan and Europe will adopt WCDMA in a strategy to take the lead through superior service. This volume will cover the latest theoretical principles of WCDMA and explain why these principles are used in the standards. Starting with a general overview, the more advanced material is then gradually introduced providing an excellent roadmap for the reader. * Presents comprehensive coverage of the theoretical and practical aspects of WCDMA * Provides a detailed roadmap by presenting the material step-by-step for readers from differing backgrounds * Systematically presents the latest results in the field Ideal for Engineers, academics and postgraduate students involved in research and development, engineers involved in management and administration.
Preface xiii 1 Fundamentals 1 1.1 Adaptive Communications and the Book Layout 1 1.2 Spread Spectrum Fundamentals 10 1.3 Theory versus Practice 16 References 19 2 Pseudorandom sequences 23 2.1 Properties of Binary Shift Register Sequences 23 2.2 Properties of Binary Maximal-Length Sequence 26 2.3 Sets of Binary Sequences with Small Cross-Correlation Maximal Connected Sets of m-Sequences 30 2.4 Gold Sequences 30 2.5 Goldlike and Dual-BCH Sequences 33 2.6 Kasami Sequences 33 2.7 JPL Sequences 35 2.8 Kroncker Sequences 36 2.9 Walsh Functions 36 2.10 Optimum PN Sequences 37 2.11 Theory and Practice of PN Codes 39 2.12 PN Matched Filter 39 Symbols 40 References 41 3 Code acquisition 43 3.1 Optimum Solution 43 3.2 Practical Solutions 45 3.3 Code Acquisition Analysis 46 3.4 Code Acquisition in CDMA Network 51 3.5 Modeling of the Serial Code Acquisition Process for RAKE Receivers in CDMA Wireless Networks with Multipath and Transmitter Diversity 54 3.6 Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition in Spatially and Temporarily White Noise 57 3.7 Two-Dimensional Code Acquisition in Environments with Spatially Nonuniform Distribution of Interference 62 3.8 Cell Search in W-CDMA 71 References 75 4 Code tracking 79 4.1 Code-Tracking Loops 79 4.2 Code Tracking in Fading Channels 87 4.3 Signal Subspace-Based Channel Estimation for CDMA Systems 94 4.4 Turbo Processor Aided RAKE Receiver Synchronization for UMTS W-CDMA 102 Appendix: Linear and Matrix Algebra 114 References 120 5 Modulation and demodulation 123 5.1 Maximum Likelihood Estimation 123 5.2 Frequency-Error Detection 125 5.3 Carrier Phase Measurement: Nonoffset Signals 129 5.4 Performance of the Frequency and Phase Synchronizers 136 Symbols 145 References 145 6 Power control 147 6.1 Algorithms 147 6.2 Closed-Loop Power Control in DS-CDMA Cellular System: Problem Definition 150 6.3 Reference Power Level 156 6.4 Feedback Control Loop Analysis 159 6.5 Nonlinear Power Control 163 6.6 Fuzzy Logic Power Control 165 6.7 Imperfect Power Control in CDMA Systems 177 6.8 Adaptive Communications 182 Symbols 185 References 186 7 Interference suppression and CDMA overlay 191 7.1 Narrowband Interference Suppression 191 7.2 Generalization of Narrowband Interference Suppression 194 7.3 Recursive Solutions for the Filter Coefficients 198 7.4 The Learning Curve and its Time Constant 203 7.5 Practical Applications: CDMA Network Overlay 210 References 214 8 CDMA network 217 8.1 CDMA Network Capacity 217 8.2 Cellular CDMA Network 220 8.3 Impact of Imperfect Power Control 228 8.4 Channel Modeling in CDMA Networks 235 8.5 RAKE Receiver 249 8.6 CDMA Cellular System with Adaptive Interference Cancellation 254 8.7 Diversity Handover in DS-CDMA Cellular Systems 258 Symbols 267 References 270 9 CDMA network design 271 9.1 Basic System Design Philosophy 271 9.2 CDMA Network Planning 278 9.3 Spectral Efficiency of WCDMA 289 Symbols 292 References 292 10 Resource management and access control 295 10.1 Power Control and Resource Management for a Multimedia CDMA Wireless System 295 10.2 Access Control of Data in Integrated Voice/Data in CDMA Systems 300 10.3 Delta Modulation–Based Prediction for Access Control in Integrated Voice/Data CDMA Systems 308 10.4 Mixed Voice/Data Transmission using PRMA Protocol 313 10.5 Fuzzy/Neural Congestion Control 320 10.6 Adaptive Traffic Admission Based on Kalman Filter 331 10.7 Soft Handoff in CDMA Cellular Networks 343 10.8 A Measurement-Based Prioritization Scheme for Handovers 354 Symbols 364 References 365 11 CDMA packet radio networks 369 11.1 Dual-Class CDMA System 369 11.2 Access Control for Wireless Multicode CDMA Systems 375 11.3 Reservation-Code Multiple Access 379 11.4 MAC Protocol for a Cellular Packet CDMA with Differentiated QoS 386 11.5 CDMA ALOHA Network Using p-Persistent CSMA/CD Protocol 390 11.6 Implementation Losses in MAC Protocols in Wireless CDMA Networks 397 11.7 Radio Resource Management in Wireless IP Networks and Differentiated Services 404 References 418 12 Adaptive CDMA networks 421 12.1 Bit Rate/Space Adaptive CDMA Network 421 12.2 MAC Layer Packet Length Adaptive CDMA Radio Networks 433 Appendix 451 References 452 13 Multiuser CDMA receivers 455 13.1 Optimal Receiver 455 13.2 Linear Multiuser CDMA Detectors 460 13.3 Multistage Detection in Asynchronous CDMA 462 13.4 Noncoherent Detector 465 13.5 Multiuser Detection in Frequency Nonselective Rayleigh Fading Channel 470 13.6 Multiuser Detection in Frequency-Selective Rayleigh Fading Channel 476 Symbols 487 References 488 14 MMSE multiuser detectors 491 14.1 Minimum Mean-Square Error (MMSE) Linear Multiuser Detection 491 14.2 System Model in Multipath Fading Channel 494 14.3 MMSE Detector Structures 497 14.4 Spatial Processing 500 14.5 Single-User LMMSE Receivers for Frequency-Selective Fading Channels 503 Symbols 516 References 516 15 Wideband CDMA network sensitivity 519 15.1 Theory and Practice of Multiuser Detection 519 15.2 System Model 521 15.3 Capacity Losses 527 15.4 Near Far Self-Resistant CDMA Wireless Network 537 Appendix 1 Coherent Detection of (mM?-CDMA) 549 Appendix 2 Coherent Detection of (amM?-CDMA) 553 Appendix 3 Noncoherent Detection of (mM?-CDMA) 556 Appendix 4 Noncoherent Detection of (amM?-CDMA) 559 References 562 16 Standards 565 16.1 IS 95 Standard 565 16.2 IS-95B CDMA 575 16.3 CDMA2000 575 16.4 IS-665 W-CDMA 581 References 588 17 UMTS standard: WCDMA/FDD Layer 1 591 17.1 Transport Channels and Physical Channels (FDD) 591 17.2 Multiplexing, Channel Coding and Interleaving 598 17.3 Spreading and Modulation 600 17.4 Physical Layer Procedures (FDD) 604 References 607 Index 609
Physicians, Biologists, and Allied Health Students.
Adaptive WCDMA covers the latest theoretical principals and practice of wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA), which is the basis for the physical layer of the third generation mobile communications systems. The focus of this volume is on implementation losses characterising the system degradation due to imperfect implementation and in turn how much of the performance promised by theory should be expected in practical solutions based on a given technology, which is not perfect but has finite cost and power consumption. It also provides a significant amount of material related to the further developments and improvements (beyond 3G) especially sections on adaptive WCDMA and modifications for implementations in ad hoc networks. Based on the author's experience in research and teaching courses in the field at both university and industry, this volume provides a simultaneous account of the theoretical principles of the technology and how and why these principles are used in the standards. Written in an accessible and simple to read style the book serves as both an introductory level text and as a more advanced reference. It has a step by step approach which introduces the theory and the standard to those new to the topic yet will meet the expectations of readers from varying backgrounds and levels. Topics covered include: * Fundamentals: provides an initial explanation about the principles of WCDMA * Power Control: including algorithms and performance analysis with a comprehensive literature review in the field of adaptive systems * Chapters on Code Acquisition and tracking, channel estimation, multi-user detection: provide a comprehensive description of algorithms and tools for their analysis * CDMA Network Design: discusses network capacity and employment issues together with coverage * Adaptive CDMA Networks: covers adaptive algorithms for maximizing throughput in the network
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