Covering the origins, key features, and legacy of the Islamic tradition, the third edition of A New Introduction to Islam includes new material on Islam in the 21st century and discussions of the impact of historical ideas, literature, and movements on contemporary trends. Includes updated and rewritten chapters on the Qur’an and hadith literature that covers important new academic research Compares the practice of Islam in different Islamic countries, as well as acknowledging the differences within Islam as practiced in Europe Features study questions for each chapter and more illustrative material, charts, and excerpts from primary sources
List of Illustrations xi Preface to the Third Edition xv Source Acknowledgments xvii Part I The Formation of the Islamic Tradition 1 1 Islam in Global Perspective 3 The Problem of Defining Islam 3 Mapping the Islamic World 5 Arabs and Non-Arabs 9 Sunnis and Shi?ites 10 Islamic Ritual 11 What to Expect from This Book 14 Essential Resources for the Study of Islam 16 Questions for Study and Discussion 17 2 Arabia 19 Geography 19 Pre-Islamic Poetry 21 Arab Religion 25 Women in Pre-Islamic Arabia 27 Mecca and the Quraysh 28 The Gifts of the Arabs 31 Resources for Further Study 34 Questions for Study and Discussion 35 3 The Pre-Islamic Near East 37 Christianity in the Near East 39 Saints and Relics 45 Zoroastrianism 46 Judaism 47 Manichaeism 49 Mazdak 49 The Place of the Arabs in the Near East 50 Chronology of the Near East of Late Antiquity 52 Resources for Further Study 53 Questions for Study and Discussion 54 4 The Life of Muhammad 55 Prologue and Setting 56 Birth and Childhood 57 Early Adulthood 59 The Beginning of Revelation 61 Opposition 63 The Night Journey and Ascent to Heaven 65 The Hijra 66 The Battle of Badr 68 Confrontation with the Jews of Medina 69 The Battle of Uh. ud 70 The Peace of al-H. udaybiya and the Farewell Pilgrimage 72 Evaluation 73 Resources for Further Study 74 Questions for Study and Discussion 75 5 The Qur?an 77 The Qur?an in Modern Imagination 77 The History of the Text 79 The Language of the Qur?an 84 The Context of the Qur?an 87 Jesus in the Qur?an 88 The Qur?an in Muslim Piety 90 The Eternity of the Qur?an 91 The Inimitability of the Qur?an 93 Interpreting the Qur?an 94 Central Themes 95 Qur?anic Narratives 96 Qur?anic Law and the Problem of Abrogation 97 Women and Gender in the Qur?an 98 Qur?an, S¯ýra, and Hadith 99 Resources for Further Study 99 Questions for Study and Discussion 100 6 The Tradition Literature 103 The Science of Hadith 104 The Origins of the Hadith 108 In Quest of the Historical Muhammad 111 The S¯ýra and the Shaping of an Islamic Worldview 115 Resources for Further Study 119 Questions for Study and Discussion 120 Part II The Expansion of Islam 121 7 The Conquests 123 Psychological Impact 127 Archeological Data: The “Invisible” Conquests 129 Resources for Further Study 131 Questions for Study and Discussion 132 8 Religion of Empire 133 Early Arab Administration 134 Conversion to Islam 137 Leadership 138 The First Civil War 139 The Martyrdom ofH. usayn 140 The Deputy of God 141 Personal Piety 142 The Dome of the Rock 144 The Constitution of Medina 149 Resources for Further Study 151 Questions for Study and Discussion 151 9 The Caliphate 153 Ibn al-Muqaffa? 153 The Shi?ite Vision 156 The ?Abbasids 158 Twelvers 159 Ism¯a?¯ýl¯ýs 160 Niz¯ ar¯ý “Assassins” 161 Kharijites 163 The Sasanian Revival 164 Al-M¯award¯ý and the Sunni Compromise 166 Resources for Further Study 169 Questions for Study and Discussion 170 Part III Islamic Institutions 171 10 Islamic Law 173 The Coffee Debate 173 Revelation and Reason 175 Qiy¯ as 176 The Schools of Law 177 Islamic Law and the State 179 Ijm¯a? 180 The U.su¯ l al-Fiqh 181 The Substance of the Law 183 Ritual Purity 184 Acts of Worship 185 Marriage and Divorce 186 The Origins of Islamic Law 189 Al-Sh¯afi?¯ý and Islamic Legal Theory 189 Resources for Further Study 192 Questions for Study and Discussion 193 11 Islamic Theology and Philosophy 195 Freedom and Determinism 196 God’s Attributes 198 Anthropomorphism 200 Faith and Works 200 Leadership 203 The Sunni Consensus 203 Ah. mad ibnH. anbal 204 Al-Ash?ar¯ý 205 Kal¯am 206 Al-M¯ atur¯ýd¯ý and other Alternatives to Ash?arite Kal¯am 208 Jewish and Christian Influences 209 The Challenge of Philosophy 210 Prophecy and Revelation in Islamic Philosophy 212 Philosophy and Mysticism 215 Resources for Further Study 216 Questions for Study and Discussion 217 12 Sufism 219 The Parliament of Birds 219 Stages on the Path 221 The Spiritual Master 223 Sufi Brotherhoods 224 Sufi Ritual 226 The Destination 229 Sufi Cosmology 230 Sufism in History: The Case of al-H. all ¯ aj 233 Beginnings to the Tenth Century 237 Classical Manuals and the Growth ofT. ar¯ýqas 239 Resources for Further Study 241 Questions for Study and Discussion 242 Part IV Crisis and Renewal in Islamic History 243 13 Turks, Crusaders, and Mongols 245 The Salju¯ qs 245 Al-Ghaz¯ al¯ý and the Sunni Revival 246 Slave Soldiers 248 The Crusades 250 The Mongols 254 The Impact of the Mongol Invasions 257 Resources for Further Study 261 Questions for Study and Discussion 262 14 Revival and Reform 263 The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires 263 The Rise of European Power 266 The Religious Environment 267 The ?Ulam¯a? 267 Sufi Reformers 269 The Wahhabi Movement 274 Resources for Further Study 277 Questions for Study and Discussion 278 15 Islam and the West 279 Napoleon’s Invasion of Egypt 279 The Birth of Orientalism 282 Jihad Movements 284 Al-Afgh¯an¯ý 285 Sayyid Ahmad Khan and Aligarh 287 Resources for Further Study 289 Questions for Study and Discussion 289 16 The Turbulent Twentieth Century 291 The Abolition of the Caliphate 291 Nationalism 293 Secularism 295 Rash¯ýd Rid. ¯a and al-Man¯ ar 298 The Muslim Brotherhood 299 Jihad and Martyrdom 300 From Shari?a to Secular Law and Back 302 Modern Qur?an Interpretation 304 The Problem of Sunna 305 Ijtih ¯ad and Ijm¯a? 306 A New Kal¯am? 307 Muhammad ?Abdu¯h 307 Muhammad Iqbal 309 Sufism and Modernity 311 The Modernist Moment 314 Resources for Further Study 315 Questions for Study and Discussion 315 17 Salafism 317 Café Salafis 317 Salafi Doctrine 319 The Ibn Taymiyya Connection 320 The Albanian Watchmaker’s Son 322 Salafi Apocalypse 324 Salafi Spring? 329 The Appeal of Salafism 331 Salafis and Sufis 332 Resources for Further Study 334 Questions for Study and Discussion 334 18 Islam in the Twenty-First Century 335 The Challenge of Pluralism 336 Islamic Liberalism 340 Islam in the West 342 Islamic Feminism 346 The Challenge of Islam 350 Questions for Study and Discussion 351 Glossary 353 Bibliography 367 Index 391
Daniel Brown is the Director of the Institute for the Study of Religion in the Middle East (ISRME) and the author of Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought (1999). His interests include modern Muslim intellectual history, Hadith studies, and Muslim-Christian relations. He is the editor of the forthcoming Wiley Blackwell Companion to the Hadith.
This third edition of the highly successful, A New Introduction to Islam, provides a comprehensive exploration of the origins, key features and lasting influence of the Islamic tradition. Exploring the Islamic tradition around the world, it discusses and compares the development of Muslim beliefs and practices in North Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia, as well as the spread of Islam to Europe and the Americas, placing each within its social and cultural context. This edition builds on its appeal to students in a number of ways, including the addition of important recent scholarship on Islamic origins – the life of Muhammad, the Qur'an, and the hadith literature – which is covered extensively in thoroughly revised chapters. Contemporary trends are discussed as they relate to the intellectual history of Islam, including explorations of Apocalypticism and Salafism. For students, this new edition features study questions and "resources for further study" for each chapter. The primary text has been supplemented with more illustrative material, charts, and excerpts from primary sources. With increased coverage of current events and Islam's relationship to the world, the third edition of A New Introduction to Islam is a critical resource for today's students.
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